Pathophysiology ANAT1066 Case study assessment Case study (b) INTRODUCTION Base on the clinical and laboratory data provided, the patient is suffering from Graves’ disease, a cause of hyperthyroidism which is a type of thyrotoxicosis. Clinical manifestation of Graves’ disease (GD) includes diffuse thyroid enlargement, palpitation and hyperthyroidism (Fukishima et al 2009). Other symptoms are ophthalmophathy which result in exopthalmos (bulging of the eye), and dermopathy (oedema) (mencori et al 2014). Hyperthyroidism has some symptoms such as heat intolerance, sweating and weight loss (mencori et al 2014). Tachycardia (a faster than normal heart rate at rest) and bruit (indicate hyper dynamic circulation) are among
3. I spent my young life struggling with this disease and my symptoms, my grandmother started having symptoms later in life around her 40’s. C. Possible environmental factors are also being studied. 1. For example, researchers have found that consuming too much iodine may inhibit thyroid hormone production in susceptible individuals.
An unbalance in these hormones would cause changes in the function and structure of the gland. In the setting where there isn’t a sufficient amount of Thyroxin synthesized by the gland, there is an increase in TSH production. Over production of TSH causes hyperplasia of the gland just to match normal thyroid levels. This would then cause a goiter to form. When the goiter is grown significantly, pressure is put on the esophagus and trachea, causing respiratory
Graves' disease only affects about 2-3% of the population (“About Graves’ Disease”). It's a very rare disease that is not taken as seriously as it should be by people. Graves' disease is an autoimmune thyroid disease. This disorder results in the overproduction of the thyroid hormone which is called hyperthyroidism. Graves' disease is an uncommon disease, but is usually found throughout women under the age of 40.
Molecular genetics have shown nearly all to be monoclonal, suggesting that an intrinsic pituitary defect is likely to be responsible for pituitary tumorigenesis. Occasionally, prolactinoma may be part of a multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome (MEN-1), but this occurs too infrequently to justify MEN-1 screening in every patient with a prolactinoma. • GH- and PRL-secreting adenomas (or mammosomatotroph adenomas) Mixed growth hormone (GH)- and PRL-secreting tumors are well recognized and give rise to acromegaly in association with hyperprolactinemia.
The PTH helps control the calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood stream. So, without the secretions of the PTH, the human body will slowly start to shut down. Consequently, the parathyroid hormone is not ‘awake’ like the rest of the body is. Hypoparathyroidism can be triggered by “something that develops in childhood” or the adult life (Hypoparathyroidism). It can even be congenital, meaning, someone can be born with this disorder, or it can be inherited (Hypoparathyroidism).
Myxedema is the severest form of hypothyroidism and at this stage there is a swelling and thickening of the skin and if left untreated myxedema can lead to coma and death…this is because the thyroid gland doesn’t produce enough of the much needed thyroid harmones that the body needs to function
For example, a lump of fat on the back of the neck and weight gain in face and neck, but thin arms and legs are the two major characteristics of ACTH tumor. Last but not the least, the TSH tumor, which is thyroid-stimulating hormone tumor will cause weight loss, irregular heartbeat, and shakiness. In contrast, the non functional pituitary tumor has no real symptoms during initial stage, but it will cause symptoms by pressing the surrounding structures while the tumor is growing
As discussed with Overtraining Syndrome and Adrenal Insufficiency, hormone levels are varying in an abnormal fashion with respect to the adrenal glands. The hypersecretions hyposecretions of adrenal gland hormones, receptor modulation of their respective target cells, and desensitization of corresponding target cell receptors produce a vast array of ill effects on many other parts of the body. For instance, in the early stages of Overtraining Syndrome, hypersecretion of cortisol is observed. Hypersecretion of cortisol, or hypercortisolism, also causes insulin resistance as cortisol is an antagonist to insulin. This can lead to the development of Type II Diabetes Mellitus and obesity.
While reviewing the risk factors for hyperthyroidism, according to the American Thyroid Association (2017), risk factors include; female between 40-60, recent pregnancy, autoimmune disease like that of type I diabetes, personal history of thyroid complications, diet high in iodine and family history of thyroid disease. The only risk factor that JK has would be the family history of his mother and 2 aunts with hyperthyroidism. With JK’s paternal grandmother suffering from Alzheimer’s disease, JK does voice concern of developing this mind crippling disease. According to the National Institute on Aging (2016), risk factors for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease includes being over the age of 65 with a family history of Alzheimer’s disease.
Case Study 1 – The Endocrine System Christina D’Amico University of Saint Joseph Abstract A fifteen-year-old boy with many hormonal abnormalities starting at the age of eleven suffered from joint pain and swelling along with poor bone growth and development. He broke his left hip and had low levels of testosterone and high levels of growth hormone resulting in gigantism and later acromegaly.
When the calcium level in the blood is scarce, the cells of the parathyroids sense this and produce additional parathyroid hormone. When the parathyroid hormone is freed into the blood, it flows to act in a number of places in order to enlarge the amount of calcium in the blood. When the calcium level in the blood is too excessive, the cells of the parathyroids produce less parathyroid hormone or stop completely, which allows the calcium levels to
This patient might affected by Cushing syndrome. Cushing's syndrome is otherwise called or hypercorticolism or Cushing syndrome. Cushing's syndrome happens because of unusually large amounts of the hormone cortisol. This can occur for an assortment of reasons. The most well known cause is mistreatment of corticosteroid solutions.
To begin the word, “endocrine,” comes from two Greek words the first of which being, “Endo,” meaning within and, “crinis,” meaning to secrete. What a gland generally does is it will remove substances from its specific location, process them, then secretes a new chemical to be used somewhere else in the body. This secretion is what we call hormones and these hormones are typically constantly circulating through the body. Even though these hormones are constantly flowing around the body, though each hormone is used to target a certain organ or tissue. If the body is in need the endocrine system can receive extra hormones from organs that have a secondary endocrine function.
The endocrine system is such an important system to the body because it functions the bodies use of hormones. The body uses many different hormones and the endocrine system regulates these. When the glands of the endocrine system secrete the hormones, the hormones are put into the bloodstream to be sent to the different parts of the body. The glands that comprise the endocrine system are the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, and the pineal gland which are all located in the brain, the thyroid, parathyroid, and thymus which are located in the throat, the adrenals and pancreas which are located in the body’s midsection, and the ovaries (female) and testes (male) which are located in the pelvic region. The system is so important because it regulates the body’s metabolism, growth and sexual development, digestion, heart rate, and many of the other body functions regulated by hormones.