Coral reefs are undeniably important for numerous reasons. They are ecologically important by supporting and providing habitat for marine community, act as wave-breakers to protect the shores from strong currents, generate income for humans and provide many other ecosystem services (Sutton 1985, Demirbilek and Nwogu 2007, Moberg and Folke 1999). Yet, corals reefs around the world are increasingly being destroyed at an unprecedented rate through overfishing, fish-bombing, increasing coastal development as a result of growing human population and others (Munro and Munro, 1994, Grigg and Birkeland 1997, Hoegh-Guldberg et al. 2007). Despite this global phenomenon, our understanding pertaining to how the complex marine ecosystem responds towards
The darling Harbour has lots of economic value as it is a major tourist attraction and lots of people come to see it. 2. Can you think of any other reasons why people might value a particular landscape or landform? Scientific value can also be important to people when visiting landforms and landscapes, like how lots of scientists and geologists go to places like caves and rock formations. Marine biologists and environmentalists also may visit places like reefs.
It becomes a vital part in Australia that advocate the community to engage with the creative expression to form the cultural identity. Besides, cultural factors influence not only economic behaviour but also political PARTICIPATION as well as SOCIAL SOLIDARITY, (Sen, 2002) which are all closely links to how and why cultural policy can be developed in NSW. The policy framework highlights the the essentiality of cultural sector contribute to community wellbeing as well as outlines the impact of arts and culture on today’s society and economy. The depth and diversity of culture in Australia has result in economic, social and cultural life that gains the global comparative advantage. It has almost become a ecosystem that enhances the regional presence in order to maximum cultural experiences and drive economic growth.
Although the impact on reef fish is still uncertain. It is however, known that reef fish are losing habitats due to the impacts on corals. The wellbeing, reproduction and overall health of fish due to chemical runoff over time, is still being investigated (Amelia S. Wenger, 2015). Research has identified that chemical runoff is increasing nutrient levels in the water. It is believed that this increase in nutrients is connected to the increase in crown of thorns starfish population, which poses another threat to the reef by impacting coral cover (Amelia S. Wenger, 2015).
The carbon dioxide in the air rises due to fossil fuel emissions; therefore, more of the gas goes into the ocean’s water. That makes the coral’s habitat more acidic, which can make it harder for reef-building creatures to build up the hard skeletons. And if that isn 't bad enough, the runoff chemicals from farms and lawns are adding to the problem by changing the water’s natural composition. A oil spill in 2010, caused by a Chinese coal-carrying ship, went through the coral reef, leaving almost 2 miles of oil to mix with the ocean water (Zimmerman). As more and more water is becoming contaminated with pesticides and chemicals, it is becoming even harder to stop the corals from dying.
Stream-channels deliver sediments and nutrients to the bay, driven to non-point sources. Nutrient-loading will increase the dissolved oxygen, which high levels will harm aquatic life and affect the water quality. Fish and other species will
The article thoroughly explains how coastal wetlands provide many benefits to the global economy and ecosystems. Some of the benefits listed in the article include protection against floods, production of goods, and water purification. Woodward (2001) aims to value coastal wetlands in order to increase efforts put into restoration. The article will be useful because it lists a great amount of benefits that coastal wetlands provides and would allow for the creation of solutions on how to maintain these benefits. Zedler, J.B., Kercher, S. (2005).
As demand for metals and other materials grow in economy, countries turn to the ocean for collecting these materials that may occur more readily in the ocean floor. As informed by conserve-energy-future.com, the deepest parts of the ocean are being affected the worst by the mining; and acidity is increased due to the materials polluting the water: “For example, copper is a major source of pollutant in the ocean and can interfere with the life cycles of numerous marine organisms and life.”. They also state that as the acidity increases, corrosion of man-made objects is inevitable, leading to more pollution due to degrading material and increased oil spills. This then leaves another overcast of deadly substances to hinder the lives of creatures that must endure the circumstances placed by human
The release of excessive carbon dioxide gas has been absorb over time by the ocean. It may be decrease the rises in temperature due to global warming but new research state that the emission of large numbers of CO2 into the seas is changing water chemistry and threaten the marine organisms, including