This is primarily a tool at the disposal of the central bank of a country which uses different tools to manage the macro economic variables of a country to keep the economy stable or to stabilize it in situations of fluctuations. Monetary policy can be expansionary or contractionary depending on whether the money supply is being increased or decreased in the system so as to affect economic growth, inflation, exchange rates with other currencies and
A diminished currency value would lead to a higher relative wealth position of foreign investors and thus lower the relative cost of capital. Malaysia have a significant impact to the inflows of Malaysian foreign direct investment. Under the fixed exchange rate policy, Malaysia was able to sustain and attract inward foreign investment due to the lower costs of production compared to others affected countries. The depreciation in the host country exchange rate will increase the FDI inflow since it reduces the cost of capital investment. Currency of Malaysia appreciates because of their increment in relative wealth and this will make external finance become more costly than internal
The 2008-2009 Financial Crisis The 2008-2009 financial crisis was the worst financial crisis since World War 2, it had threatened the total collapse of large financial institutions all around the world, which in return was prevented by the bailout of banks by national governments. Despite this stock markets had still
Keynesian economic theory relies on spending and aggregate demand to define the economic marketplace. Keynesian economists believe the aggregate demand is
America was defined by making less than a certain amount of money each year, which was determined by the government (BBC). The masses were indifferent to the amount of people impoverished, proving the mindset of false prosperity. The preconceived notions that the U.S. economy would be unimpaired were soon disproved by the Great Depression. People who were impoverished were getting loans, and buying luxury items (Facts). This lifestyle of believing in the false prosperity and not realizing the problems during the 1920’s of America caused people to suffer more.
Joshua Bradshaw Mr. Brown English 11 B/Period 4 18 March 2016 Causes and Effects of the Great Depression Over the course of the Great Depression, the United States’ economic and social well-being was immensly impacted. Debate on what one thing caused the Depression is futile as it was an accumulation of many different events. Although different, these events, as result, caused the Great Depression. The Dust Bowl of the 1930s took its toll on the failing farms.
Currency fluctuation is a situation in an economy where the value of the value of the currency rises, fall or both frequently against its major trading currencies for a period. While some currencies fluctuate freely against each other, such as the Ghana Cedi, Japanese Yen and the US Dollar, others are tied. They may be pegged to the value of another currency, such as the US dollar or the Euro, or to a basket of currencies (Farlex, 2009). Changes in interest rate affect currency value and exchange rate.
As a result, bank runs occurred. These runs were detrimental to the viability of the banking industry. Banks didn’t have the cash on hand to be able to distribute the large withdraws. In this time during the 1930’s, over 9,000 banks failed. This coming as a result of deposits not being insured which caused even more panic for the American people.
Under the recessionary gap, an easy monetary policy should be exercised. In this situation, the Federal Reserve can increase the money supply by lowering the required reserve requirements, buying government securities in the open market operations, and by lowering the discount rate. To increase the money supply, the Federal Reserve has to lower interest rates through the money market. This would cause an encouragement to businesses to do more investment spending, which would shift the aggregate demand curve outwards. In other words, the Fed can increase the money supply by lowering interest rates and stimulating investment spending.
According to the monetary policy intervention model, higher interest rates, decreases money available and consumer spending. This lowers aggregate demand in the economy. Or vice versa, lower interest rates will stimulate the economy with higher spending, increasing demand.
The neoclassical theory suggests that an increase in minimum wage would decrease welfare not maximizing the issue. But through the supply and demand graph it shows the exact opposite. If the minimum wage were to increase for low-wage workers then the number of positions available causing unemployment. Employers would have to alter their demand to what they can afford because now they have to adhere to the demands of the government’s regulation on increasing the minimum wage. Highly skilled workers would not be affected in this scenario because they are paid above the minimum wage.
Foreign investors are attracted towards a country that has a strong economy. This leads to better valuation of the currency. Increasing budget deficits of governments lead to the decreasing valuation of currency. When it minimizes, the currency value makes a favorable, more prominent exchange rate.
The central bank of the United States is the Federal Reserve, known as the Fed. It is the Fed’s responsibility to take actions, known as monetary policies, that will influence interest rates and the money supply within the economy to obtain the goals of price stability, financial market stability, maximizing employment, and stabilize economic growth. The goal of maintaining price stability by keeping inflation low and stable helps preserve the value of money. Sustaining the financial market promotes efficient flow of funds from savers to borrowers. By cultivating conditions to keep employment high, the fed can promote maximum production to spur economic growth and raise the standard of living for Americans.
National Trade Deficit in is when there is a negative balance in the economy’s measures. This trade deficit illustrates the domestic currency’s of different foreign markets. In addition, the deficit is the value of the imported goods subtracted from the exported goods. The effect that the trade deficit has is that it raises the living standards for citizens and allows them to have more access to goods and public services. Plus, it decreases the risk of inflation and lowers down prices to goods.