Greece was divided into individual city-states that each had their own form of government. Most notable, however, was the democracy of Athens and the oligarchy of Sparta. The driving force behind all of Greek life and politics was this concept of arete. While arete differed between Athens and Sparta, this lust for excellence became the driving force behind their democracy and oligarchy. The geography of Greece did not allow for a strictly central government, and so, the Greeks adapted.
When comparing and contrasting these countries’ constitution, it is evident that justice is achieved through its fundamental human rights that results in equality for all. The Greek Constitution “includes the main rules concerning the structure of the State, the exercise of its powers by the authorities as well as a list of human rights” (Government and Politics, n.d.). The Greek courts follow the inquisitorial trial system, much like other European countries in which the judge of the court has an active role during questioning in comparison to the adversarial system. “The inquisitorial system appears to be more adept at identifying and investigating the relevant facts and ensuring that this is all taken into account when deciding to proceed with a trial. As such, it seems to be a more cost-effective method of conducting a criminal trial” (Teacher, 2013).
(Primary Source) He gave a speech in 1872, June 24th at the Crystal palace, in which he describes the British empires colonies as “a millstone round our necks.” However by 1880 shortly before his death in 1881, he had changed his stance on colonies. He now almost felt it was Britain’s duty to garner control and almost give support to less developed countries, in particular Africa. This brought forth the concept of new imperialism, where countries now wanted to exert influence of colonies past the norm of economic factors. By the 1900’s almost eighty percent of the world was colonised by Europeans, with new imperialism in motion, industrialisation and nationalism was at the forefront of this European machine. There were deemed to be four types of imperialism, in which the major European powers carried them out.
Exploring Ancient Greek Governments The Ancient Greeks were particularly concerned with such fundamental questions as who should rule and how? Should sovereignty lie in the rule of law, the constitution, officials, or the citizens? These are not questions that plague those in power in our modern era however caused great conflict in Ancient Greece (Cartwright, 2013). From one polis to the next, each had the right to determine (some taken by force) how their city-state would be ran and by whom. Monarchy, tyranny, aristocracy, oligarchy and democracy are all forms of government the ruled the different polies in Ancient Greece.
From Greek mythology, we can learn about the favorable characteristics of humans, such as their behavior and valuable skills that were approved of by the ancient Greek society. We can also learn about what was viewed as immoral or of little value. In addition, reviewing the Greek myths allows us to determine that the Greek society was generally a patriarchal society and agricultural and war were strong elements that shaped the ancient Greek society. Greek mythology and religion were integral parts of the ancient Greek society. The Greeks followed a polytheist religion in which multiple gods represented various aspects of the nature as well as skills practiced by mankind.
The rapid process of decolonization post World War II (WWII) created the need to view development through a different lens altogether and therefore the theory of Modernization emerged. There were three main historical events which led to the inception of the Modernization theory. The first one being the United States emerging strengthened after the war and becoming a leading super power. The second being the spread of the communist movement which extended its influence to China and Korea and the third being the disintegration of colonial empires in Africa, Asia and Latin America, which then constituted newer nations known as the Third World. Modernization therefore refers to a model which attempts to recognize and categorize certain social variables which ultimately contribute to the development and social progress of societies.
These certain staples of power were democracy, obligarchies, and tyrannies. Small communities in ancient Greece expanded to become separate city- states known as the Polis. The Polis were the nucleus of life in ancient Greece. This meant that the Polis were gathering places to settle business, discuss politics, and as gathering for religious events as well. The Polis was an independent society in which it’s citizens worked for the good of the state.
Most of Europe in the past two thousand years has been ruled by monarchies, with some states having active monarchs up until the 20th century C.E. In this stretch of time, different kingdoms in Europe saw the rise and fall of absolute monarchy, which refers to a ruler having total control over his or her kingdom, free from the restrictions of legislature and customs. The rise of absolute monarchy gives credit to two features which radically transformed governance in these kingdoms, and mainly those of England and France. The feature of mercantilism allowed further involvement of the ruler in the economic sphere of his kingdom, namely in trade and production, as compared to his previous role in simply collecting revenue. Further, the king used
For decades after World War II, the countries have sought to formulate, adopt and implement decentralization reforms for several common objectives (Cohen and Peterson, 1999). These objectives are generally designated in three periods through the time. First, in the transition to countries’ independence after World War II, the countries with many ethnic groups had trouble attaining political equity to countries, which are mostly, united some districts or regions including different several ethnic groups or religions and resolving the increase of demands on public goods and services are major reasons in favor of decentralization practices in 1960s. In this regard, most of the newly emerging independent countries adopted decentralization within their unitary state model and very few numbers of countries led to the federalism for their decentralization strategies. From mid 1970s to the early 1980s, secondly, emerging of New Public
Introduction: The question is; are enough measures being put in place to control the increasing population of the world and of South Africa in particular? This paper will outline two third world countries and two first world countries measures they are putting in place to control population growth and compare them to South Africa. Also it will state the ethical issues in both third and first world countries where population control is being implemented and the possible issues which could arise. A personal statement will also be included at the end. World Population In 1990 the world population, according to The World Bank, was approximately 5.2 billion people.