The Crusades were a series of military and religious expeditions to reconquer the holy land of Jerusalem. They were led by the Christians and were meant to get the land back into Christian power and get rid of the ruling Muslims. From 1000 to 1400 over a dozen Crusades took place from all across Europe, where hundreds of thousands of soldiers fought, however, there were three major Crusades. Pope Urban II encouraged his people to join the first Crusade and started the biggest series of battles ever to take place. As a result of the first Crusade, four Christian kingdoms were created. The third Crusade was led by Richard the Lion-Hearted and resulted in a truce between the Christians and Muslims. King Philip, Richard the Lion-Hearted, and Frederick …show more content…
It is an incendiary and often explosive device causing mass destruction. In the novel, during the siege of Jerusalem, Greek fire was the most common weapon used because of its powerful effects and simplicity to make. In the book, people were screaming as Greek fire fell on them, which was poured from above out of a tower. The author describes the sight of burning bodies and smell of burning flesh across the battlefield. This evidence is realistic, “Greek Fire was a flammable compound used in warfare by the Byzantine Empire with devastating effects against the fleets and armies of its enemies”(Streissguth). Both sources agree Greek Fire was a terrorizing and violent weapon used throughout Medieval Warfare. The Byzantine empire was able to thrive in Medieval Europe for over a thousand years because of military advancements like Greek fire. Also, because the Byzantines were located between the Mediterranean and the Black sea, during the Crusades, Greek fire rapidly spread from empire to empire, making Greek fire one of the most common weapons used during the time period. Greek Fire ultimately was the deciding factor of the Christians defeating the Muslims because of the drastic impact it had in many battles, including the first and the second Arab siege of Constantinople lasting from
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8.2.1- In 1097 an estimated 100,000 men enlisted in the first crusade, due to the fact that the pope promised salvation from purgatory if they joined the pilgrimage to Jerusalem to liberate the Holy Land. Peter the Hermit left, to the Holy Land, with 30,000 peasants, they terrorized Jews in Germany, and Christians in Bulgaria, when they got to Constantinople they were transported to Bosphorus and the Seljuk Turks defeated them, and the living were sold into slavery. After a five-week siege Jerusalem fell on July 15, 1099, the first crusade was a success, and because most crusaders were younger sons of nobles (Oldest gets the kingdom), they made four Crusader states based on the French Feudal model: the Country of Edessa, the Principality of Antioch, the Country of Tripoli, and the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. 8.2.2-
The purpose of the Crusades were for political and economic gain because of the military threat from the Muslims, potential resulting success, and control of Jerusalem. One of the political and economic benefits of the Crusades was the defeat of Muslim enemies. In Pope Urban II’s 1095 speech that asked for recruits, it stated, “They have occupied more and more of the lands of those Christians, and have overcome them in seven battles. They have killed and captured many, and have destroyed the churches and devastated the empire” (Document 1). Pope Urban II wanted Christians to go to the Middle East to fight because Arabs and Turks attacked their fellow Christians and conquered Christian land.
Jerusalem was the Holy city for Christians, which is why they wanted control over it again. Therefore, the Byzantine empire asked the Pope to call upon his people into war. Painting people as “Heathens” also fueling their desire to conquer Jerusalem, showing how unholy people don’t deserve to have control over the Holy Site. Many Christian empires already considered non-Christians as barbarians, so this added fuel to the fire. This brought community among Christians and stopped at-home wars, turning their focus onto Muslims and Jews.
All things are capable of change in our world, and the symbolism of fire in Lord of the Flies is no different. In the book a group of boys land on a deserted island in the middle of nowhere. They try to build a society built on the ideas of the adult society they came from. At first the boys seemed to be structured and ordered, but soon their primal instincts of savagery came out changing their system into a horrifying nightmare. Throughout Lord of the Flies, the strength and purpose of the fire created by the boys seems to be a meter of the boys connection to civilization, where towards the beginning it is strong and valiant, and then slowly loses its importance and burns out and finally it encircles the whole island due to its savage purposes
They destroyed empires. Document 4 states, “ ….the Byzantine Empire as a political unit never recovered”(unknown author 4). This relevant because this piece of evidence tells us that the Crusaders did much more damage to communities other than war. The damage of the political unit of the Byzantine’s was one of the reasons why the empire fell.
Introduction: Provide background information on the Crusades, restate the DBQ question, state thesis with reasons. (include academic vocabulary and underline) The results of the Crusades was probably more negative than positive. In “Doc 4”, It states that “Moreover, the assault of one Christian people on another, when one of the goals of the Fourth Crusade was reunion of Greek and Latin churches, made the split between the Greek and Latin churches permanent.” The Crusades had a lot of hatred to the religions, and by 1204 the Crusaders had lost some of their appeal because the knights agreed to attack the Byzantine Capital instead.
The crusades were a religious dispute between Christianity and Islam that took place in order for the Christians to take back their holy land, Jerusalem, from the Muslims. Urban II initiated the crusades at the Council of Clermont through a speech, with an audience of noblemen and clerics. His main goal was to urge “European princes to stabilize Christendom’s borders and then go further to recapture Jerusalem and restore Christian rule to the holy land” (Bentley et al. 422). These expeditions sparked new political, religious, and economic developments for the world. The crusades were a huge accomplishment for the people of Christian faith because new people began to convert.
In 1198, Pope Innocent III preached the Fourth Crusade to reinstate Christian lands and recapture Jerusalem. Under Innocent III, for the first time in the history of the Crusades, the pope taxed the church in order to collect money for the war. In this Crusade, advocates followed Richard the Lionheart’s procedure and travel by sea rather than by land. As a result, crusaders leased vessels from Venice. Instead of going to the Holy Land, the Crusaders attacked Zara and Constantinople in order to acquire money to pay their debt and fulfill selfish reasons.
The crusades happened because of many reasons. First the Turks took over the holy lands. Then the Byzantine Emperor wanted to regain the holy land, so he called for the church 's help. Pope Urban II didn 't want to look weak, so he arranged for the first crusade. That is the cause of the crusades.
The Christian View vs. The Muslim View of the Crusades The crusades were a set of different military actions that were sanctioned by the Catholic Church and the papacy. Their intention was to recapture Holy Lands they believed were rightfully theirs from the Muslim people that had invaded it. As any attack on a large group of people would do, every major group was affected. The Christians had their own reasons and beliefs for going on these Crusades.
The Crusades involved not only knights and warriors, but also commoners of both genders. Helping the Byzantine emperor Alexios meant protecting the citizens of Constantinople from falling under Muslim rule. Jihad, often thought of as a synonym for terrorism - recurrently thought of as acting in the name of Allah, means an internal moral struggle. Like a Jihad, the Crusades were postulant expeditions in the name of God, to protect the Holy Land from the Arab Muslims. Later on, the Crusades became a substantial excuse for Christians to fight anyone who was supposedly a threat for their religion.
A crusade was a medieval military expedition, there were several created by the Europeans to get back the Holy Land from the Muslims in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. There were four European crusades talked about; 1st Crusade, 2nd Crusade, 3rd Crusade, and the Children’s Crusade. The 1st Crusade began in 1096 when Pope Urban II agreed to help take back the Holy Lands of Jerusalem from Muslims or the Turks. There were many battles throughout Western Europe, Byzantine and Islam which were mostly won by Christians.
Medieval Europe was a time of war and conflict between different peoples. One of the most important military endeavors of the time was called the Crusades, which was a campaign of Christian attempts to take Jerusalem from the Muslims, who occupied it at the time. Spread over several hundred years, many bloody battles were fought over the holy city. The Crusades involved the two largest religions on the continent and impacted a massive amount of people. The battles irreparably changed the lives of everyone they touched, turning peasants to knights and nobles to slaves.
The Crusades were successful failures because they did not meet many of their goals, but left lasting effects. The Crusades was an attempt by the Roman Catholic Church to regain the Holy Lands from the Muslims. They believed they were fighting for god and all sins would be forgiven and defend the Byzantine Empire from the Turks. The first Crusade (1096 -1099) was successful for the Christians because they had a clear and organized religious based purpose. Crusaders the Christian armies were able to hold Jerusalem and in the process led to a massacre of Jews.
Pope Urban II’s speech at Clermont in 1095 was a call to crusade given outdoors to the nobles, commoners and church leaders of the Western European Christians (the Franks). The people were moved by this speech and it changed history, launching the first crusade to capture Jerusalem from the Muslim Turks. After hearing Pope Urban II’s speech, thousands of Western European Christians were moved to embark on the dangerous journey and fight in the crusade. I believe the main reasons they were moved and persuaded to fight was; 1) they felt it was their Christian duty, 2) Pope Urban promised them absolution for their sins and 3) they felt compelled to defend Christianity, their holy land and the Eastern Christians.