Green Marketing Literature

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Foreign Literature The Green Marketing theories and principles, since it conceptualization in 1970s has shown considerable amount of literature and researches in different aspect and areas of Green Marketing. Green Marketing, also known as Environmental Marketing, Sustainable Marketing or Ecological Marketing, consists of all activities from product designed, pricing, distribution in the intended market to disposal of the product that is intended to generate and facilitate any exchanges for the satisfaction of human needs or wants such that satisfaction of these needs and want occurs with negligible or negative impact on the natural environment. (Welling, M.N. and Chavan, Anupamaa, 2010)
Evolution of Green Marketing Concept The establishment
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Reports from State of the World, the World Resources Institute, Environmental Almanacs and Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development showed that according to a wide range of indicators, the environment was coming under increasing stress. Various scientific researches have evidence about ozone depletion, unpredictability of climate changes that is linked to global warming and green gas effect, air and water pollution, depletion of non-renewable natural resources (Douglas, 2008) and satellite evidence of rapid rainforest destruction came to attention. The society, in its present form and on its current trajectory of rapid growth, cannot be sustained indefinitely. The physical environment has limited resources and a limited capacity to absorb pollution and waste. (Peattie,…show more content…
The theory of Peattie and Crane (2005) conceptualized that the evolution of green marketing has three phases. First phase was termed as "Ecological" green marketing. During this period, all marketing activities were geared up in solving or finding solutions for environment problems. Second phase was "Environmental" green marketing and the focus shifted on providing clean technology that involved development of innovative products that uses renewable energy, recycled materials, and can be disposed of naturally in the environment, meaning with less waste and pollution. Third phase was "Sustainable" green marketing which came into prominence in the late 1990s and early 2000. “Sustainable green marketing is a radical change approach to business practice and the markets which aims to meet the complete environmental costs of product creation and consumption to produce a sustainable economy”. (Ginsberg & Bloom, 2004; Srinivassa, 2014) Amidst the environmental issues and concerns, the fact that consumers are consuming the earths’ natural resources much faster than the earth can produce, Sustainable Green Marketing grew momentum. The years that followed, green marketing received a lot of attention as the habits and preferences of consumers shifted towards purchasing green products or eco - friendly products. In response to political, social, and competitive forces, many organizations (from profit and non-profit sector) started

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