Introduction Methane in the earth atmosphere is an important greenhouse gas with global warming potential 23 times greater than carbon dioxide and considerable evidence of climate change is also associated with emission of greenhouse gases (GHG), mainly carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), in the atmosphere (IPCC, 2007). The primary sources of methane emission may be divided into natural (30%) and anthropogenic (70%) (Wuebbles & Hayhoe, 2001). Among the anthropogenic factors agriculture, including animal production is a major sector with highly significant contribution to environmental pollution. According to Steinfeld et al. (2006), 80 million tonnes of methane is released annually to the atmosphere from animal production through enteric fermentation.
However, the burning of fossil fuel produces greenhouse gasses primarily carbon dioxide that has an advent effect on the environment in recent decade. The excess of the greenhouse gasses in the environment has led to global warming which in turn, has become a common discussion during global forums. According to report “Inventory of U.S Green House Gas Emission and Sinks 1990-2011” from US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), transportation released 28% of the total gasses emitted in US out of total of 6,702 metric tons of CO2 released in 2011. The subsection consists of motorcar, motorcycle, trucks, airplane and etc. Figure 1.1: Total U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Economic Sector in 2011 (EPA, 2013) It is the second highest among the entire sector that includes electricity, agriculture, industry, and residential.
Global warming Global warming is the rise in the average global temperature. The average global temperature is the land surface temperatures and the sea surface temperatures combined. Studies show that the average global temperature has been increasing drastically
There are many causes of the global warming, some are natural causes and some are human”made causes. The most important cause of global warming is greenhouse gases which are generated by some natural processes as well as human activities. The increase in the level of greenhouse gases has been seen in the 20th century because of the increasing population, economy and use of energy. Increasing demand of industrialization in the modern world to fulfil almost each need is causing the release of variety of greenhouse gases through many industrial processes in the atmosphere. The release of carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) gas has been increased in the recent years by 10-fold.
The record shows burning coals, oil and natural gas have emitted roughly 500 billion tons of CO2 that abort by the atmosphere since Industrial Revolution (NWF). For this reason, scientist believed burning coal and oil are biggest factors for recent climate change
1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 NECESSITY FOR SUSTAINABILITY The earth has been heating up at an accelerating pace over the last decades mostly due to major greenhouse gases generated by human activities (see Figure 1). Carbon dioxide (CO2) is mainly responsible for the anthropogenic impact on the planet’s energy balance, however, an increase of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) represent an even higher threat to global warming as these gases possess a 25 and 298 times greater global warming potential than that of CO2 (Knohl and Veldkamp, 2011). Figure 1: AVERAGE ANNUAL TEMPERATURES SINCE 1880 (Randall, 2016) Not only do carbon emissions and pollution harm the environment but also the accumulation of waste particularly plastic, endanger the planet. At least 268,940 tonnes of human-induced garbage, mostly plastic, is floating off the coast of California. Scientists call it the Great Pacific Garbage Patch of which 75% are items measuring more than 200mm.
Some of it is trapped by a number of gases which resulting in the Greenhouse Effect. Global warming is the increase in average temperature of Earth due to the effect of Greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrocarbons. In 1896 Arrhenius was the first to claim that fossil fuel combustion may at some later time result in enhanced Global Warming.The observed rise in temperature over the 20th century was 0.3 to 0.6˚C. In 2014- IPCC release new report on Climate change, this report says that human activities are the dominant (95%) cause of the climate change.
Average temperatures around the world have risen by 0.75°C (1.4°F) and over the last 100 years about two thirds of this increase has occurred since 1975. (J. Hansen, 2010). The reason behind the exponential increase in global temperature after 1970s is seen as the industrial revolution which released large amount of CO2 gas in the atmosphere leading to global
GLOBAL WARMING INTRODUCTION Global warming is defined as the growing of the average temperature on earth. As earth receiving hotter, disasters like hurricanes, droughts and floods are getting more frequent. Over the last 105 years, the average air temperature near the surface of the earth has increased by little less than 1 or 1.3 degrees Fahrenheit. Global warming is the cause and climate is the effect. It is very warm at the earth’s Poles, the Arctic and the Antarctic.
One of the biggest problems facing the world today is global warming. Some scientists believed that carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases are having a warming effect on the atmosphere. Measurements of temperature taken by instruments all over the world, on land and at sea have revealed that during the 20th century the earth’s surface and lowest part of the atmosphere warmed up on average by about 0.6 C. The causes of the global warming are rising sea level, changes in weather patterns, the effect on animals, and disadvantages. First of all, many problems could results from global warming such as rising sea level. On one hand.