From the start of the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century, humans have been increasing the amount of carbon dioxide they release into the atmosphere (Changes). This causes many different problems such as weather changes, major floods, global warming, and melting ice caps, in which scientist have been given the task of solving. In addition to these effects, CO2 emissions also cause very harmful, but less known problems in our oceans. High levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere cause oceans to absorb between 25 and 30 percent of mankind’s emissions (Barry). This rise in carbon dioxide results in the ocean becoming more acidic, creating a phenomenon called ocean acidification.
Hich carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere traps heat which is transferred to the ocean; it is also absorbed into the ocen, which causes the ocean to become more acidic. This is the most frequent cause of coral death. In comparison to dynamite fishing, spear fishing, land pollution, sea pollution, tourism, overfishing and invasive species, the increase in greenhouse gasses is the main cause of coral reef destruction globally, as it changes the temperature, current and content of the ocean, and it causes an increase in frequency and intensity of natural disasters. The rise in temperature of the atmosphere causes the sea level to rise as a result of glaciers melting and thermal expansion (1), this causes a change in the density and salinity. This change in density causes currents to vary, becoming more or less violent and varying in temperature (2), causing physical destruction and aiding coral bleaching.
Part of the problem with ocean acidification is human activity. Ever since the industrial revolution commenced, around one third of the carbon dioxide released by human interference has been absorbed by the ocean, which is one of the reasons of the drastic change in climate as well. Without the ocean absorbing carbon dioxide, the carbon dioxide n the atmosphere would be drastically higher, with possibly increasing the levels of climate change.The point of the research is to see how will the pH affect the organisms in the marine ecosystem and does carbonation affect an organism’s mass and form. Many organisms that are part of the marine food chain are going to be affected by ocean acidification due the levels of acidity deteriorating the calcium carbonate within the animal. It turns out
The chlorine atoms that are replaced by hydrogen atoms causes a higher presence and both are covalent bondings with strong intermolecular forces. The double bondings (Or triple bondings) in hydrocarbon tends to be stronger, but the chemical is flammable. Fluorocarbons are not flammable and are also polar covalent bondings, making them stable to ultraviolet radiation and prevents them from catalysing ozone depletion. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), one of the alternatives that contains C-Cl bondings have most of its molecules dismantled in the lower atmosphere before reaching the stratospheric ozone layer. Another chemical, Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), having no chlorine atoms which does not bring harm to the ozone layer is considered the best alternative since they are not flammable, such as CF3CH2F,1,1,12 tetrafluoroethane.
As demand for metals and other materials grow in economy, countries turn to the ocean for collecting these materials that may occur more readily in the ocean floor. As informed by conserve-energy-future.com, the deepest parts of the ocean are being affected the worst by the mining; and acidity is increased due to the materials polluting the water: “For example, copper is a major source of pollutant in the ocean and can interfere with the life cycles of numerous marine organisms and life.”. They also state that as the acidity increases, corrosion of man-made objects is inevitable, leading to more pollution due to degrading material and increased oil spills. This then leaves another overcast of deadly substances to hinder the lives of creatures that must endure the circumstances placed by human
If the ice caps were to melt, the sea level would rise exponentially, which would affect modern coastal cities and arctic wildlife. The consequences as a result of our actions could be devastating.
A global average temperature rise of only 1C could have serious implications. Possible consequences include melting of polar ice caps; an increase in sea level; and increases in precipitation and severe weather events like hurricanes, tornadoes, heat waves, floods, and droughts. Indirect effects include increases in infectious disease, weather-related deaths, and food and water shortages. All these effects put a stress on ecosystems and agriculture, and threaten our planet as a whole. (Colborn, Kwiatkowski, Schiltz, and Bachran.,
The ice from glaciers, the ice sheets and permafrost are already melting and will probably continue to melt at a higher rate in the future leading to rises in ocean levels (IPCC, 2014). Furthermore, it causes the emission of methane (also a GHG), stored mostly in the Arctic regions (Shakhova et al., 2007) which in turn leads to increased heat in the atmosphere, further aggravating climate change. GHGs cause the oceans to contain increasingly more acids, which damages coral reefs and negatively influences the amount of CO2 the ocean can absorb (IPCC, 2014). Weather conditions are becoming progressively extreme and a rise in floods, hurricanes and temperatures can already be measured and will further increase in the future (USGCRP, 2014). Weather incidents could destroy forests and swamps, which causes less CO2 to be absorbed naturally.
Even penguins and other species that live in cold areas are affected by such problems. Ice shelves are melting in Antarctica and Greenland. Both these countries have two kinds of ice shelves: land-based and sea-based. Sea-based ice shelves will start melting first and therefore cause the land-based ice shelves to melt as well. This causes enormous problems since all the extra water from the melting will increase the sea level.
It not only affects animals and plants but also the human population, which is indeed scary (Markham). Rising sea levels and higher temperature, dangerous rainstorms and droughts are going up commonly. When the temperature increases, the ice will melt at the North Pole. This result leads to the effect that sea levels
by Brett Garling from the Mission Blue Sylvia Earle Alliance, states that factory farming contributes to the sea temperature rising and ocean acidification because the rising of atmospheric temperature is also rising global ocean temperatures, that leads to the widespread of coral bleaching. He says this is a problem because bleaching slows down coral growth which makes them vulnerable to catch a disease, and later leads to large-scale reef die-off(Garling). Also Garling states that a “greater concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is increasing the acidity of the global ocean,handicapping the extensive roster of marine organisms that build shells or
Climate change is more serious than we take it. If it continues, everyone will parish. Climate change affects us in many different ways. It causes animal population numbers to decrease, slows down transportation to the north, and causes flooding and the rise of the sea level. Global warming exists, and it is not only affecting the environment.
For years it was thought that carbon dioxide absorption into the oceans would benefit the environment as it reduced the amount of greenhouse gasses present in the atmosphere. It became clear after careful observation of the oceans over time that excess carbon dioxide created a chemical reaction in the water that resulted in the release of free hydrogen in larger-than-average quantities. This led to a dramatic increase in oceanic acidity levels and became highly damaging to marine life, the chemistry of which is explained below. It is estimated that 30 to 40% of all anthropogenic carbon emitted into the atmosphere is absorbed by oceans. When CO2 reacts with water molecules, it produces carbonic acid (H2CO3).
Global warming has severe impact to the world, it melts the polar ice caps, raises the sea level. “ As global temperature rise by up to 9 degrees fahrenheit, this shelf could conceivably break apart, allowing enormous chunks of ice to flow into the ocean…. These chunks of ice could displace enough water to raise global sea levels by more than fifteen feet”(Bilger 61). Increasing the sea level by fifteen feet would cause the flooding of Boston, submerging Miami, and also Bangladesh will go under water. Melting polar ice caps will cause is the death of wildlife in the Antarctic, polar bears will not be able to survive on ice but instead will drown into ocean.