The theory of criminal justice This theory states that criminal procedures are part and branch of philosophy that focuses on punish those who break the law. There is a strong correlation between criminal procedures and the philosophy of law as well as the morals and ethical standards of society. Criminal law theorists put more emphases on offenses that can be seen as illegal and that warrant criminalization of the activities or events. Thus, most of these theorists believe that there is the need to punish the lawbreakers to set an example to other individuals who may have intentions of following their suit or engaging in legal activities. Some of the activities classified by criminal law theorist as a crime or illegal include murder, rape and
They want to make sure when punishing an immoral act, there is benefit to society. Shaw says this because utilitarianism does give established laws and reasoning behind them. Shaw also says that Utilitarians say that our system of punishment as it functions, succeeds in rehabilitating many convicts and discourages them from future mistakes. his reasons for saying this. I think that Utilitarians favor exploring the alternatives because doing something to someone, even a criminal, who has committed a heinous crime, morally wrong, and two wrongs do not make a right, it is setting the wrong view for society.
John Wayne Gacy an American serial killer and rapist who shall not be condemn as immoral. When committing these acts Gacy was acting in his best irrational interest and based on his own opinion rightness or wrongness. This is supported by the ethical theory of egoism and ethical subjectivism. The theory of egoism states that for an action to be morally right it should maximize one’s self- interest. Killing and raping at large scale could’ve been fulfilling and exciting for the defendant Gacy.
Another theory related to criminal activity would be the social control theory. This theory explains that people can see the advantages of crimes and are capable of doing crimes but does not do the crimes for fear of the consequences
These theories support the main assumptions that crime is a choice and will not occur if the opportunity is absent and rewards are diminished. Routine activity theory. The routine activity theory takes for granted that there are many motivated offenders. Crime rate variance thus depends on the supply of suitable targets and available guardians (Cohen & Felson, 1979). This theory supports the situational crime prevention theory that crime is a choice and can be deterred through the removal of suitable targets or guardianship.
However, the severity of punishments and the methods used by the law were beneficial and practical and they helped to reduce the amount of crime in England. The article “Crime and Punishment in the Elizabethan Era” expresses that crime was an issue in Elizabethan England, and a threat to the stability of society. To maintain order the penalties for committing minor crimes were generally punished with some form of public humiliation. For major crimes including thievery, murder, and treason those convicted were put to death. The sheer ruthlessness of the punishments discourage any sort of crime as they will scare the citizens into never breaking the law in fear of the consequences.
As societal crime rate continues to escalate, the epidemic of homicides and mass murders remains a prevalent social problem. Thus, the emergence of serial killers has caused alarm among many criminologists and psychologists. Serial killers usually have an impulsive desire to kill for no particular reason, which makes it difficult for law enforcement and criminal professionals to understand their motives. Thus, the motives of serial killers have led to heated debates and challenged the nature vs. nurture theory. Many scientists believe that serial killers are genetically incline to commit murders, while criminologists associate violent crimes to childhood and surroundings.
Crime is a conduct that is prohibited by law and must have a severe sanction that is directed at a public purpose. White-collar and corporate crime is a type of crime that is committed by middle and upper class people about their business activities. Sutherland defined white-collar crime as a crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation (textbook). Rational choice theory is the result of cautious choices made by offenders based on their intentions of the risks and rewards of these choices. Criminals make rational decisions to commit a crime by reviewing all possibilities and outcomes (idealessay).
Just deserts claims that it is the offender’s choice to commit a crime, using the classical theory founded by Cesare Beccaria that states, “It asserts that a person is a rational individual with the free will to make a moral choice whether or not to engage in conduct known to be prohibited” (Starkweather, 1991, p.855). The offender made his choice and therefore must be punished for his act of crime. However, just deserts fails to acknowledge that factors in a child’s upbringing can affect their life choices as an adolescence and adult. As noted by Alley, Minnis, Thompson, Wilson and Gillberg (2014), adults who were “psychically, sexually, and emotionally abused as children were three times more likely than were non-abused adults to act violently as adults” (p.290). Consequently, giving punitive sentences and failing to help them psychologically will not help offenders when they are released back into the community.
Mandatory sentencing laws often target moral vices like alcohol, sex, drugs, and to friendships and family via prohibition, and crimes that threaten a person's livelihood. The idea is that there are some crimes that are so serious there is no way to accept the offender back into the general population without first punishing them sufficiently. Some crimes are viewed as serious enough to require an indefinite removal from society by a life sentence, or sometimes capital punishment. It is viewed as a public service to separate these people from the general population, as it is assumed that the nature of the crime or the frequency of violation supersedes the subjective opinion of a judge. Remedying the irregularities in sentencing that arise from judicial discretion are supposed to make sentencing more fair and balanced.
ISIS has had probably one of the biggest impacts on Canada ever since Justin Trudeau has started to let refugees or immigrants into Canada, some of those refugees and immigrants are part of ISIS. The first reason ISIS has made an impact is that they have been trying to kill people, but a lot of the people who tried killing people failed and have been sent to court. Some of the examples are. September 25th an ISIS member tried killing a police officer at 10:04pm after running the cop over with a silver chevy and getting out and stabbing the cop 8 times in the legs and running off into a u-haul van. Another attempted murder was at a Canadian tire in Winnipeg at 8:32am.