Pour the hot reaction mixture now out into a petridish, covered with a paper to prevent loss by sublimation, and allow to cool. Step II: Preparation of anthranilic acid from pthalimide Reaction: (Step 2 is Hoffmann degradation reaction) Procedure: 4. Dissolve 15 g sodium hydroxide in 15 ml water. Keep the solution cool and add 4.2 mL bromine in one lot. 5.
This will make the limestone lose the carbon dioxide and increase the purity of the calcium carbonate. Secondly, filter this mixture to remove the remaining silica and other insoluble materials. Next, add oxalic acid (H2C204), to the limestone powered. This mixture will create a calcium oxalate ( CaC2O4), and aqueous carbonic acid ( H2C03), according to this formula: CaC03 + H2C2O4 -> CaC2O4 + H2CO3. The next step is to rinse the calcium oxalate and sprinkle some deionized water and pour it into a beaker.
A separatory funnel is attached to the clamp stand with a conical flask below as a receiving flask for the unwanted solution. The separatory funnel works by adding a solution to the mixture and blocking the top with a bung. Then turning the funnel upside down and right way around combines the mixture and the solution aiding in separating the ester from the aqueous layer. The aqueous layer is then removed/released by turning the head of the funnel. The bung must be removed at this stage as Carbon Dioxide is released.
1 Experiment 7: Titration of an Antacid Objective: In this experiment, you will standardize a solution of base using the analytical technique known as titration. Using this standardized solution, you will determine the acid neutralizing power of a commercially available antacid tablet. Introduction An understanding of the properties of acids and bases is an essential part of understanding chemical reactions (see Tro, pp 167-171). In aqueous solutions, a compound that produces H+ ions upon dissolution is termed an acid. A compound that produces OH– ions when dissolved in water is called a base.
For example, an experiment similar to this one could be how pressure could affect the time it takes for an Alka-Seltzer tablet to dissolve. Using A flask and rubber stoppers, you can compare the amount of time it takes for and Alka-Seltzer tablet to dissolve in regular room temperature water and room temperature water in a flak but with a rubber stopper stopping the air flow into the flask. This is related to the experiment performed above because the increase in pressure from the rubber stopper stopping the air flow in and out of the flask may affect the time it would take for the Alka-Seltzer tablet to dissolve. Another example of an experiment related to the one performed above is how the amount of water used to dissolve an Alka-Seltzer tablet effects the time it takes for one to dissolve. This also relates to the experiment performed above because it also affects how fast the rate of reaction is.
In this experiment, extraction was used as a separation technique to separate the acid, base, and neutral compounds. In extraction, two immiscible solvents with different polarities are used to dissolve and separate different solute components, so they form two distinct liquid layers. In this experiment, ethyl acetate, an organic solvent, and an aqueous solution, were used as the two immiscible solvents. The extraction solvent must be capable of dissolving one of the mixture components, without irreversibly reacting with it. While initially it seems as though the organic acid, base, and neutral compounds would never pass into the aqueous layer, the conjugate acid and base of the organic base and acid respectively are soluble in water.
It helps to prevent strokes, heart attacks and blood clot formation. It can be produced from salicylic acid and acetic anhydride, with acetic acid as its by-product. However, salicylic acid consists of the phenolic and carboxylic acid groups which are way too acidic for the stomach lining. Thus, acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) was refined to become a more effective substitute. Theories In this experiment set-up, acetic anhydride is added to salicylic acid in the presence of a catalyst, concentrated sulphuric acid.
Conversion of neodymium oxide into nitrate by adding 2N nitric acid in a water bath is used as dopant precursor. This freshly prepared aqueous solution was added in lead nitrate solution with constant stirring until pale violet color turbid free solution is reached. The precipitation process was carried by drop wise addition of selenium dioxide into the lead nitrate solution under vigorous stirring, followed by addition of hydrazine hydrate to fix the pH and allowed to
Soaps are sodium or potassium salts of long chain fatty acids. When triglycerides in fat/oil react with aqueous NaOH or KOH, they are converted into soap and glycerol. This is called alkaline hydrolysis of esters. Since this reaction leads to the formation of soap, it is called saponification. Surfactant – Compounds that lower the surface tension between two liquids or between a liquid and a solid.
It is to prevent the cell from washing away during the staining and washing process. Then, it is air dried and followed by fixing it with flame from Bunsen burner. After fixing the smear, it must be stained using Gram staining solution, firstly crystal violet solution was flood onto it, and allowed for 1 minute, then wash off with tap water. Then, flood the slide with iodine solution for 1 minute and wash it off with tap water again. The formation of a dye-iodine complex will occur in the cytoplasm.