While cultural feminism places an emphasis on the need for a history of women’s’ victimisation and offending, the feminist perspective has made significant contributions informing critical criminology (White, Haines and Asquith, 2012). It challenged traditional definitions of crime, it was critical of criminal justice practice and present crime (White, Haines and Asquith, 2012). It raised questions about the authenticity of recorded statistics, in particular, police statistics and moved the criminological thinking discussion (White, Haines and Asquith, 2012). The feminist perspective has raised awareness of issues of family violence and male violence
Both texts ‘The Handmaids Tale’ and ‘The Bloody Chamber’ were written during the second wave of feminism which centralised the issue of ownership over women’s sexuality and reproductive rights and as a result, the oral contraceptive was created. As powerfully stated by Ariel Levy, ‘If we are really going to be sexually liberated, we need to make room for a range of options as wide as the variety of human desire.’ Margaret Atwood and Angela Carter both celebrate female sexuality as empowering to challenge the constraints of social pressure on attitudes of women. Both writers aim to expose the impact of patriarchy as it represses female sexual desire and aim to control it thus challenge contemporary perspectives of women by revealing the oppression
Connell’s contributions to the understanding of masculinity in society are numerous; however, a select few ideas are most closely related to the short story.” In order to gain a clear idea of how the concepts relate to the prose, one must first develop an understanding of the core arguments. Connell’s primary argument that “‘Masculinity’ does not exist except in contrast with ‘femininity’” (Connell 252) calls to attention the nature of gender practice. Connell essentially argues that masculinity is a result of a perceived lesser definition of persons that can be distinctly summed up by one word.
Male way of thinking becomes socially acceptable so the male sex turns into a central force in society based on notions of gender. Gender, as a social formation, deals with femininity as a form of suppression. Feminist of the era felt that they need to modify the conventional image of the female form in art. Mary Russo, author of Female Grotesques: Carnival and Theory, writes, The grotesque body is the open, protruding, extended, secreting body, the body of becoming, process and change.
They say it is offensive for woman to be left exposed and as an object to be looked at, meaning Dolce & Gabbana was displaying objectification. As opposed to the media, Dolce & Gabbana argues that the intentions were artistic which definitely characterize the brand. As mentioned in the introduction, the brand creates and develops their own advertisements, which gives them the freedom to express their unique creativity through different yet artistic adverts. Believing this, figure (1) was meant to depict a scene without any sexual violence; rather, it was created to be understood as a sexual game.
Sherman sought to force the public to question the seductive and often oppressive influence of mass-media over our individual and collective identities. Sexual desire and domination, the fashioning of self-identity as mass deception, these are among the unsettling subjects lying behind Sherman's extensive series of self-portraiture in various guises. Despite not aligning herself directly with feminism Sherman does conclude her work is, in fact, feminist. The work is what it is and hopefully, it's seen as feminist work or feminist-advised work, but I'm not going to go around espousing theoretical bullshit about feminist stuff. The portrayal of women is a central theme throughout Sherman's career and can still be seen in her more recent works.
Laura Mulvey is a feminist film theorist from Britain who is known for her essay on visual pleasures in narrative cinema. Being inspired by Sigmund Freud and Jacques Lacan’s ideology combined with psychoanalysis, Mulvey comes up with the ‘Male Gaze Theory regarding sexual objectification on women in the media. The male gaze is the way in which the visual arts and the literature portrays women and world from a masculine point of view presenting women as objects of male pleasure regardless of being heterosexual male or female, thus the formula of cinema becomes comprised of “women ad image, man as bearer of the look.” The male gaze consists of three different gazes: - look of the camera that records the film, - the look of the characters in the film and – the look of the audience that views the film. Mulvey then went on to classify women’s role on film functions “on two levels: as erotic objects for the characters within the screen story, and as erotic objects for the character within the auditorium.”
During 4th century B.C, ancient Greece had adopted views that were dominantly misogynist. Women were thought to be no more than tools to the men of the Athenian society which was overwhelmingly patriarchal. To explain, one can look at the archaeology of the Greeks found in New York’s Metropolitan Museum of Art. The towering figure of Dionysos, the God of Wine, hovering over a miniature, and at the same time powerless, women perfectly exemplifies this concept of misogynism. To further the periods misogynistic ideas, the literature had no concept of centering a story around a woman.
In the article “Religions: The Basics” by Malory Nye talks about female writers, inequality and the distinction between males and females. In the article it mentioned how the term Androcentricism assumes that the male’s perspective and experiences are the most vital and key point of reference. I agree with Mary Daly that the concept of belief in a male deity leads to profound sexual inequalities. The reason I agree with Mary Daly is due to the fact there is a lot of gender differences and that women are viewed as inferior, while men are more superior. It is surprising that in western culture, they can’t go a day without woman-male distinction.
And, although women are illustrated by the narrator in a very sexual sense, through outlining every vulumptuous aspect of their appearance, it seems as if their sex appeal is more of a power play pitched in their favor and less of a means to objectify them. It’s almost as if their looks make them dominant and
The Golden Rule states to treat others “as we would like to be treated”, but Christine Stevens takes the maxim one step further to ask: what if another animal was in the dominant position, and would we, as humans, want said animal to treat us as it would like to be treated? God gave humans “dominion” over all animals so one could use them as helpers and as food, but humans use other humans as helpers just as animals use other animals as food. All living creatures roam the same God-given earth with the same, single creator. Humans are to respect all things just as much as God, for the world is a reflection of Him. Christine Stevens is correct in her thinking that the Golden Rule should apply not only to humans, but towards both the treatment