Freud theory focused more on the Psychoanalytic theories which are how the body behaves from birth to adulthood, and how their behavior are driven. Erikson theories stages were an examination of psychosocial challenges. Freud and Erikson perceive the significance of the oblivious personality on human development. They both base improvement on a type of engagement. At the point when contention isn 't settled properly, suffering can happen, which can prompt psychological instability.
Word association discloses complexes - collections of often repressed and related unconscious associations, impulses or ideas that cause a habitual pattern of behaviour or thought of a person (Mitchell, n.d.). The Word Association Test devised by Jung was an experimental method which provided an objective basis for some of Freud’s ideas, to identify complexes Jung used a tool called the psychogalvanometer (Lu, 2012). Psychogalvanometers as explained by Jung (1947) measure skins resistance of a miniscule electrical current, Jung further states that a persons general mood and immediate emotional reactions influence and alter the electrical resistances magnitude. Causes of skin resistance influences and changes can be attributed to altering levels of cortical arousal. Transference as mention by Sanders (1989) is a useful way of attuning to the clients progress.
Historically, some psychoanalysts believed depression is anger turned inward, or in other words, hatred turned into self-hatred. Sigmund Freud, founding father of psychoanalysis, suggested that people protect their self-esteem with defense mechanisms that reduce or redirect their anxiety by instead distorting reality.
The main theorist behind the psychodynamic approach is Sigmund Freud. ‘Psychodynamic theorists look for the causes of behaviour in a dynamic interplay of motivational forces that often conflict with one another. They also suggest that many of these motivational determinants of behaviour are unconscious’ (Holt N., Bremner A., Sutherland E. et al. 2015 p.628). Psychodynamics and psychoanalysis looks at the ways in which the unconscious mind influences our behaviour.
Existential therapy is more of an idea rather than an independent school of psychology with certain abided rules in therapy such as psychoanalysis or behaviorism. Some key people that contributed to existential therapy are Victor Frankl and Rollo May. Not only is existential therapy an idea practised in therapy, it has also influenced researchers to branch out, developing new theory styles based on the themes of existential therapy. Jacob Moreno, for example, has come up with a therapy style known as psychodrama which revolved around existential themes. He based
Personality is one of the main areas of psychology research. Over the years, researchers developed theories trying to explain how people are different and similar. Personality traits were grouped together to be determinants of more general traits such as Extraversion, Agreeableness or Neuroticism. The traits were tested for various correlations. All this to better understand why people behave the way they do and how big impact does the personality have on behaviour.
Prins briefly references Gordon Allport by including an Allport’s definition of personality, but Allport’s trait theory would have also been a valuable tool for Prins to use to analyze the components of a psychopath. For example, Prins could have examined the impact of cardinal traits on the personality of a psychopath. According to Daniel Cervone, author of Personality: Theory and Research, some examples of cardinal traits are sadistic and authoritative. Prins should investigate which traits are at the core of a
Since strict potty training can cause obsessive disorders such as being perfectionists or too much concerned about control. Therefore to pass the anal stage successfully the parents can stop being too strict on potty training or too lenient or carefree on this matter to avoid vice versa. Likewise parents relationship with their children plays a vital role in the development of their psychology. During phallic stage parents must understand that the male and female children creates a liking towards their opposite sex parent which is quite normal of children. The children must be allowed to be with their opposite sex parents and there should not be restrictions over it.
Nietzsche’s influence extended beyond philosophy to psychology. Notably, Sigmund Freud, the architect of psychoanalysis and analytic psychology founder, Carl Jung are said to be influenced by Nietzsche’s work (Brians, 1998). Although Nietzsche’s work left impressions on several other twentieth century psychologists, including Alfred Adler, Abraham Maslow and Ayn Rand, for the purpose of this essay the effect on Freud and Jung’s work will be in primary focus. Jung was fascinated by Nietzsche and his work. From Jung’s student days to him being a pioneer in the psychoanalytic movement, Jung read and developed his own thoughts regarding Nietzsche’s ideas and work (Rensma, 2012).
One of the theories that he proposed was the theories on instincts which are the life and death instinct. The life instinct is also known as the libido, which is the sexual energy that motivates us to seek pleasure while the death instinct is that human developed an unconscious desire to die which