Many of us do not realize the importance of a baby in the womb developing safely as well as correctly. Prenatal Development is the period in development in which a baby is conceived until the moment it is welcomed into the world. Baby’s take an average of thirty-eight to forty weeks to fully develop and prepare for birth. This time period of nine months is broken down into three periods in which the baby spends growing from a tiny mass of cells into a functional, healthy, happy baby. There are three main stages that a baby must go into, while in the womb: The Germinal Stage, The Embryonic Stage, and The Fetal Stage.
The umbilical cord also referred to as Funiculus umbilicalis or birth cord, might be, the only organ of the fetus that dies after the birth (1). It is structurally and functionally simple, yet it is the fetal lifeline connecting placenta to the fetus for the supply of oxygen, nutrients and transfer of waste materials, processes necessary for the growth and development of the fetus (2). It is usually attached near the cen¬ter of the placenta, from where the umbilical vessels ramify under the amnion and pass into the placenta, but it may be eccentric or marginal (3). (As shown in photographs 1, 2 and 3) Photograph 1: Central insertion of the umbilical cord into the placenta. Photograph 2: Eccentric insertion of the umbilical cord
Theoretical Perspectives The way in which settings plan and support children’s development in play is influenced by a range of theoretical perspectives. Cognitive Theory In 1936 Piaget developed the theory of cognitive development and suggested that children move through four different stages of mental development. The theory emphases how children acquire knowledge and focuses on understanding the nature of intelligence in children. Piaget believed that children take an active role in their learning process and develop through making their own experiments, observations, and learning about the world. (https://www.verywell.com/piagets-stages-of-cognitive-development-2795457) Piaget's four stages of intellectual (or cognitive) development
Internal and external factors in the mother’s life influence fetal development as well. Therefore, the mother needs to take extra precaution to sustain a healthy physical and mental environment, a balanced diet, and avoid exposure to harmful influences such as drugs, alcohol, disease, and environmental hazards. Early prenatal care can provide the support you need to have a healthy pregnancy. While continuing regular activities and exercise is important, women can also participate in classes that help prepare them for childbirth. They teach you techniques and methods that will allow you to experience a more smooth
Although physical growth during infancy is evident to everyone, Cognitive development is not as clear. Throughout childhood up until adulthood, infants are able to visualize and understand their surroundings to be competent to solve problems, make decisions, process their thoughts and recall all the acquired information one might need or want (Wells, 2014). This mental process is known as cognitive development. Piaget and Vygotsky are very well known for their theories on this matter. While their theories might be similar, each has a different theory of how cognitive development evolves throughout one’s life.
The Life of Prenatal Period It is a figureless comfort and a spiritual life with full liberty. The prenatal life is that of fortune. It is just like an early babyhood life. There is no feeling and no perception. No one can realize any responsibility of his, nor feel for his duty.
2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE Growth is a polygenic and multifactorial phenomenon and it is predominant during first two years of life. Growth during infancy is a predictor of adult health (1). Literature focusing on factors affecting morphometric indicators, growth of preterm born and full term born infants was reviewed put the present study in context and to highlight the exemplary studies done in this area. 2.1 Factors affecting growth of infants Socio economic status of a family, nutrition, environmental factors, health status, smoking of mother are the major factors that affect fetal as well as infant growth (27). Maternal and paternal characteristics like education, occupation also has a significant impact on the growth of the infant (28).
Prenatal development consists of three phases which are first, second and third trimester, each phase is very important because it relates to nutrition prior to conception, the weeks last between 13 through 14 weeks. (According to Nutrition: An Applied Approach, Second Edition by Janice Thompson and Melinda Manore)
Early life Early childhood according to World Health Organization refers to a period, including gestation period of fetus till the age of 8yr. Initial years of childhood is very important as in these years child’s mental and physical growth occurs at faster pace1. . This initial growth and development has long run relationship with health status of child till his/her attainment of adulthood to death. Apart from those initial 8yrs of childhood a healthy period of gestation also contributes toward child health a lot.