Flavor volatiles are derived from an array of compounds including phytonutrients such as fatty acids, amino acids, carotenoids,phenols and terpenoids (Goff, S.A.; Klee, 2006) . Fruit volatile compounds are mainly comprised of diverse classes of compounds , include , alcohols, esters, Ketones , aldehydes, and terpenoids. However, some sulfur compounds, such as S-methyl thiobutanoate, 3- propanal, 2-ethyl acetate, 3- ethyl propanoate, and 3- propyl acetate, also contribute to the flavor of fruit such as melons (Cucumis melo L.) (Song, J.; Forney2008) .Many C10 monoterpenes and C15 sesquiterpenes compose the most abundant group of compounds present in the aroma . In several cases, these are the compounds determining the typical aroma. Such as, the S-linalool terpenoids , limonene, valencene and β-pinene are key aroma compounds of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa), and citrus (Citrus sp.
Tree: Sapodilla is a medium to large tree with a pyramidal to rounded canopy with many branches. It produces a dense crown and a characteristic branching system (sympodial), in which the young branches are arranged horizontally. These long-lived trees grow slowly but after many years, may reach 20-30 m in height. Branches are horizontal or drooping. A milky latex known as ―chickle exudes from all tree parts.
Averrhoa bilimbi and Averrhoa carambola (Star fruit), both these fruits belong to the family of Oxalidaceae, members of which contain high oxalic acid. Nair S et al has reported that oxalic content of A. bilimbi fruit to range between 8.57 to 10.32 mg/gm with highest level seen in half ripe fruit in rainy season whereas that of A. carambola is 80-730 mg/dl.3-5 Oxalate excretion mainly occurs through kidneys and therefore increased oxalate load may predispose to renal failure6,76,7 Of the two cases reported here, the first patient took total 500 ml of bilimbi juice in two days and the second patient ingested juice of 500 gm star fruit in one day.Although the exact amount of fruit or juice which may cause renal insufficiency is yet not known5,it
2.0 THE CASSAVA PLANT Cassava, Manihot esculenta, grown basically for its storage roots is a perennial shrub in the family Euphorbiaceae. The cassava plant is a woody plant that may have been first cultivated in brazil is the third largest source of food carbohydrates in the tropics and a major staple food in the developing world (Adekunle, Osazuwa, & Raghavan, 2016). Different varieties of cassava possess distinctive characteristics and qualities that enable the various varieties adapt to its environment. The cassava plant as compared to other plants can flourish in drought season and poor soils. It forms a symbiotic association with soil fungi, which makes the cassava plant grow in acidic soils (Adekunle et al., 2016) Growth of the cassava
Saturates (including waxes); which are non-polar hydrocarbons, without double bonds, but including straight-chain and branched alkanes, as well as cycloalkanes (naphtenes). 2. Aromatics; refer to benzene and its structural derivate. Aromatics are common to all petroleum, and by far the majority of the aromatics contain alkyl chains and cycloalkane rings, along with additional aromatic rings. 3.
Organic acids (latic, acetic, malic, ascorbic and citric acids) can be employed in these modifications, altering the physicochemical properties of the starch, mainly for their application in the food industry, where they are already employed to lower the pH . This would be an alternative process for the substitution of other acids commonly used and associated with greater environmental impact, such as hydrochloric and sulphuric acids, to alter the pasting properties of the starches . Some organic acids can be used to hydrolyze parts of starch prior to thermal modifications, such as heat-moisture treatment, to achieve an improvement in slowly digestible starch and resistant starch . In addition, studies have shown that modification by lactic acid combined with UV irradiation may improve the expansion properties of cassava and corn starches
1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of Study Garcinia mangostana belongs to the family Clusiaceae and commonly known as mangosteen or “manggis”. Morton, 1987 (as cited in Pedraza-Chaverri, 2008) states that mangosteen tree is slow to grow and can reach 6 to 25 meter and it has leathery, glabrous leaves. The mangosteen-fruit is dark purple or reddish, with white, soft juicy edible pulp with a slightly acid and sweet flavour and a pleasant aroma (Jung et al., 2006). The mangosteen tree is a perennial plant with a straight trunk and wide leaves. The tree can be easily extinguished as virtually all parts of the tree will produce a yellow latex when wounded.
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Suhreta Husic, et al., (2005) In this paper two sequence of polyurethane resins were prepared using soypolol 204 original from soybean oil and petrochemical polyol jeffol G30-650. Polyurethane from soybean oil has better thermal, weather and oxidative stability, and can be used as a matrix primary phase in composite materials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mechanical properties of untreated E-glass fiber reinforced composite materials prepared with soybean oil-based polyurethanes resin on physical and mechanical properties. The result shows that mechanical properties like tensile strength and flexural strength, tensile modulus and flexural modulus of the Soypolyol based composite materials were similar with composites based on petrochemical polyol. But soy-based polyurethanes shows good thermal, oxidative and hydrolytic stability than that of the petrochemical based compposites, they can be a feasible substitute to the petrochemical urethane based matrix resins for composite materials .
Carica papaya is a large tree with a single stem which can growth up to 10 metres. It’s consists of wide spirally arranged leaves compact to the top of the trunk. The leaves are large in size with the diameter up to 70 cm. Both leaves and stems have large amounts of milky latex. The lower trunk is the place where the leaves and fruits were borne.