Intelligence is generally studied among human beings. Intelligence is defined as the capacity for logic, abstract thought, understanding, self-awareness, communication, learning, emotional knowledge, memory, planning, creativity and problem solving of the individual. It is generally described as the ability to perceive information, and retain it as knowledge to be applied towards adaptive behaviors within an environment. 1.8.1 HISTORY OF THE TERM Intelligence derives from the Latin verb intelligere, to comprehend or perceive. A form of this verb, intellectus, became the medieval technical term for understanding, and a translation for the Greek philosophical term ‘nous’.
According to him, the behavioural responses of the individuals to their environment (specific responses) allow identifying the way in which individuals typically behave in a situation (habitual responses); by grouping habitual responses, personality traits can be identified. Using factor analysis, Eysenck found certain personality traits that he believed were fundamental (super traits) and comprise all the other traits. Initially, Eysenck found two super-traits: extraversion and neuroticism. Later, he found a third super-trait, which he called psychoticism. These super-traits are not categorical, but measured on a continuum: at the opposite end of extraversion there is introversion, at the opposite of neuroticism there is emotional stability, while socialization is the opposite of psychoticism.
1. Stages in group development: An understanding of the characteristics of groups and how it plays out in the different group development stages 1.1 Introduction: Group development and characteristics Susan Wheelan (2005a, p. 13) proposed a "unified" and "integrated" model of group development, built on Tuckman 's model of group development. This model comprises of the following five stages: Dependency and Inclusion, Counterdependency and Fight, Trust and Structure, Work, and Termination (Snyman, 2015, p. 33). Snyman (2015, pp. 28 – 32) described seven major characteristics of a group, for the purpose of this discussion the emphasis falls on leadership and group roles as characteristics of a group, and how it plays out in the different group
The Stakeholder Salience Theory, created by Mitchell, Agle and Wood, are based upon the combination of the three relationship attributes to generate general types of stakeholders. These attributes include: Power; Legitimacy; Urgency. “Stakeholder salience” is defined as the degree to which managers give priority to competing stakeholder claims. Therefore if a stakeholder consist of all three attributes, he/she/it will be of most importance and will have more rights and privileges than a stakeholder that consists of only one of the three attributes. As seen in the picture on the right, you can differentiate between the different types of stakeholders, according to where they get placed given the attributes they consist of.
(High Existence) Humans form mental models of the world using a system of beliefs, which also include their underlying assumptions. The real world they perceive is actually a cognitive creation in their minds; a mix of their thoughts, beliefs and external stimuli. Our senses only provide us with limited information; inferences fill up the remaining gaps. Perception and expression are two very different things. Languages play an integral role in affecting the perceptions and building blocks of reality that we exist in, and in the end show through expression the world we have perceived.
How does it work? Nobody could possibly give a particular answer for this. Intelligence is defined as the ability to acquire and apply knowledge and skills. Human intelligence, according to Robert Sternberg, is “mental quality that consists of the abilities to learn from experience, adapt to new situations, understand and handle abstract concepts, and use knowledge to manipulate one’s environment.” It’s a complex combination of learning memory, reasoning and problem solving skills. Intelligence could be classified as 9 main types: naturalistic, musical, logical-mathematical, existential, interpersonal, bodily-kinesthetic, linguistic, intra-personal, spatial intelligence.
According to Howard Gardner (1983) who had developed the theory of multiple intelligences. Who’s work result had shown that intelligence thinking refers to the “IQ” level. However, he argued that IQ test can only measure linguistic and logical- mathematical abilities. Gardner said that there are nine different kinds of intelligence. Which are linguistic or verbal, Spatial or Visual, Mathematical or Logical, Rhythmic or Musical, Kinesthetic or Bodily, Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, Naturalistic and Existential.
Thus, the theory assumes that people make causal attributions in a rational, logical fashion, and that they assign the cause of an action to the factor that co-varies most closely with that action.  Harold Kelley's covariation model of attribution looks to three main types of information from which to make an attribution decision about an individual's behavior. The first is consensus information, or information on how other people in the same situation and with the same stimulus behave. The second is distinctive information, or how the individual responds to different stimuli. The third is consistency information, or how frequent the individual's behavior can be observed with similar stimulus but varied situations.
Interpersonal intelligence is the ability to understand and interact with different people effectively through verbal and non-verbal communication and also being able to entertain people with different views (Tlali, 2016, p.304). On the other hand, the intrapersonal intelligence refers to the ability for one to introspect themselves and determine their strengths and weakness. The naturalistic (nature smart) theory of intelligence looks at the ability to identify patterns in nature and distinguish different types of things found in nature. The bodily kinaesthetic (body smart) intelligence refers to the ability to use the body to convey feelings and emotions by dancing or doing sports (Tlali, 2016,
It emphasizes that organizational processes play a significant role in perception as well as problem solving. The major proponents are Kurt Kofka, Wolfgang Kohler and Max Wertheimer. Gestalt psychologists viewed the human mind and behaviour as a whole suggesting that the whole is greater than the sum total of its parts. According to Gestalt psychologists, this movement happens because our minds fill in information that is missing. This belief that the whole is greater than the sum total of the separate parts led to the discovery of different phenomena that occur during
Charles Spearman said that intellect is the ability that underlies in all mental operation to degree. There are seven capabilities that singly or combination that are involve in all intellectual activities. These capability are called primary mental abilities which are verbal comprehension, numerical ability, spatial relations, perceptual speed, word fluency, memory, and reasoning(Louis L. Thurstone). Next, we 'll discuss the historical foundations of intelligence. We 'll be looking at researched works of Howard Gardner, Alfred Binet, Francis Galton, and the works of Herrnstein and Murray.