However, in postmodern fictions there is other attempting to define the concept of gender identity in light of the psychological perception. Carter’s postmodern feminist assumption emphasizes the role of the psychological aspects in forming individual’s gender identity. For example, in School of Sympathy (1948) Nancy Roberts defines identity as, “who we think we are who we tell our-selves we are or ought to be” (p. 19). She suggests that gender identity is a sense that we try to form. Nevertheless, she, in clarifying this definition, also highlights the impact of some norms, which can affect this feeling: “To some extent this identity is usually based on race, class, ethnicity gender and sexual orientation” (p. 19).
Both Gustave Flaubert’s Madame Bovary, and Wilkie Collins The Woman in White depict female characters who are under emotional and physical distress, albeit for entirely different reasons. Emma Bovary’s confinement is self-induced, she is slowly dying from unfulfilled aspirations due to her own fundamental and eventual fatal error, in that she mistakes literature for life. Subsequently, Emma is confined in a world she finds tedious and monotonous. Ultimately, her ennui (Identities, p.20) becomes so severe that nothing she does can console her craving for excitement, as Flaubert tells us “domestic mediocrity drove her to sumptuous fantasies, marital caresses to adulteress desires” (101) and nothing she does matches the ‘’felicity, passion and rapture she finds so lovely in her books “(p.33). In comparison Collins The Woman in White tells the sensationalist tale of women who are confined through no fault of their own, from the beginning of the novel we are told, “This is the story of what a Woman 's patience can endure .
That doesn’t mean anything. Maybe it was yesterday” [Camus 3]. First Meursault doesn’t know what date his mother died, showing him that he is submissive to find out which date she actually dies, he just doesn’t give effort in the things he does. Albert Camus shows Meursault’s insignificance feelings and actions to his mother and as he sends her away and when she dies, he doesn’t care and is disrupted by her and her presence. Another way Meursault shows the unimportance of women is Marie’s relationship.
Even during Catherine’s first marriage with Jerome, what her family thought in the past about her being unable to bear children was proven incorrect. Although it nearly kills her, and she would not ever be able to give birth to bear anymore children, she successfully gives birth to their daughter, Sally. By setting aside death anxiety, Catherine and George are successful in having regular lives without the overwhelming anxiety of Catherine’s sudden death. The feelings created by Jerome’s absence, on the other hand, do not have outcomes that are as positive. The dread of the thought of him being killed by Nazi forces is too much for his foster mother, and when combined with her own husband’s recent death, it is what causes her health to decline until her own eventual death.
She had been separated from her mother who was a single parent. The play shows a number of women penitents from 1963. These women were all in the asylum because they were victims of sexual abuse or single mothers. Thus the female victim of sexual abuse is punished by society rather than the male perpetrator. One of the women finds consolation in religion rather than face the ugly reality of the sexual abuse she suffered.
It is notable that in this poem, their relationship isn’t characterized by any direct interaction but only her own perception, watching and imitating Daddy from a distance. Thus, there’s a sense of distance, of incompatibility, and a feeling of something lacking in their relationship that torments the speaker. The poem describe her final effort to detach herself from this struggle, which predicts her death. With admiration, fear, dominance, and distance, the relationship between the speaker of Daddy and her father could be like every other family of the twentieth century. However, her father’s abrupt death has revealed its detrimental flaws by leaving her with a lack of an independent personality and decades of mental suffering.
The confinement of females under mental and physical distress is the central theme in Gustave Flaubert’s Madame Bovary, and Wilkie Collins The Woman in White. Flaubert’s Emma Bovary is a narcissist whose self-induced obsession with literature restricts her from having a happy fulfilling life, as nothing compares to the excitement and adventures she reads in her novels. While the plot of Wilkie Collins The Woman in White depicts two women incarcerated against their will in a private mental institution. These private asylums proliferated in the mid nineteenth-century as alternatives to the established large-scale public hospitals/asylums. This assignment will compare and contrast the methods used by both authors to define confinement, including structure, setting, narrative techniques and genre.
These romances have distorted her view of reality and she cannot recognize what is real and what is not, and this brings her to behave insanely. Arabella’s insanity is a device used by the author to argue about the deceiving power of the Romance genre. Arabella follows the code of romances and expects all the other characters to behave according to her code. She rigorously follows the code of romances for the whole time until she gradually understands that her vision could be wrong. In Jane Austen’s novel Sense and Sensibility there are two main characters, the Dashwood sisters, Elinor and Marianne.
In the essay “Identity and Independence in Jane Eyre”, Angela Andersson concludes, “Her imprisonment can symbolize the way the women of the Victorian time were trapped in the home and their behavior was restricted by the society.” Jane experienced true fear that night and realized she would need to stick up for herself to resist the patriarchal society she lived in. Jane overcame mistreatment from the Reed Family, then from Brocklehurst at Lowood, and St. John’s cold treatment after she refused to marry him. Jane also resisted Rochester’s attempts at commanding her and trying to court her by spoiling her. When asked to be honest with Rochester, Jane explains, “I don 't think, sir, you have a right to command me, merely because you are older than I, or because you have seen more of the world than I have; your claim to superiority depends on the use you have made of your time and experience” (Bronte 168; Ch. 14).
Taking into account that women were denied to think about sexual pleasures, and denied to enjoy life, reduced to boredom and to take care of her husband and her family, Kamala Das tries in her novel to search for this lost identity by telling her sexual and physical encounters with other men and rising the power and the identity of the repressed women. Also, by examining the psychological accomplishments that women suffered in those days, Das deals with the deepest part of the human soul, in her search for truth. The difficult relationship with her husband starts with her relationship with her father since she grew up in an authoritarian family in which her mother had nothing to say and her father made all the decisions. In her try to love and understand her husband, his attitude toward sex –