1. Introduction Due to the extensive use of pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs), a wide range and different of PhAC residues occurs in the aquatic environment. Their fate is potentially a major issue that is yet to be understood .Extensive use of antibiotics for disease prevention, treatment of microbial infections and promotion of animal and plant growth have led to the frequent detection of different antibiotics and their by products in the environment [2,3]. The antibiotics distribution in the environment can increase the resistance of bacteria and subsequently compromise public health by preventing treatment of infections caused with these bacteria ; and this is one of the major challenges for human and veterinary medicine. one of the most widely used antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine is Ciprofloxacin (CIP), that is a third-generation of Fluor quinlones.
The advantages were clear against the traditional sampling techniques. One of the most talked about reasons was less invasive idea. However, there was also problem in terms of handling and storing the sample that was also solved. The method started being applied to numerous different procedures such as therapeutic drug monitoring or the pharmacokinetics studies. The main assumption regarding the DBS is that if the punches were measured correctly, it would give the exact same volume of blood absorption.
Free radicals and Relative oxygen species have been involved in the initiation of various human diseases including atherosclerosis, metabolic disorders, heart disease, cellular ageing, inflammation, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthiritis, malaria, cancer and HIV/AIDS (Alho and Leinonen, 1999; Odukoya 2005). Various major Phenolic compounds such as catechin, quercetin, narigin, rutin, caffeic acid, tannic acid, gallic acid and chlorogenic acid are veryuseful and significant plant phytoconstituent. (Qusti &al, 2010). Natural herbal plants products are commonly known to produce different important antioxidant substances which have ability to protect the body against oxidative stress and cellular oxidation damage caused by free radicals (Ozsoy et al, 2008). All medicinal plant requires a detailed knowledge prior to its use because, the pharmaceutical value is absolutely dependent on the quality of the plant material.
The time lapse between the beginning of symptoms and death is frequently so short that does not allow to initiate an empirical antimicrobial therapy. Currently, the C. sordellii diagnostic is determined by means of anaerobic cultures of blood, which is not only time consuming but also is limited to certain laboratory facilities that not all hospital laboratories have, thus do not perform antimicrobial testing on
The commonly seen benign lesions were chronic abscesses and cystic changes of the breast. The most common malignancy detected was invasive ductal carcinoma and ductal carcinoma in situ. Conclusions: We found that elastography using a cut-off value of 2.5 for the strain ratio had a higher specificity, positive and negative predictive value when used as an adjunct to sonomammography, Key-words: Elastography, breast lesions, strain elastography, sonomammography, FNAC.
Since we live in the US most of us are very lucky not to have it in our country other than a few people getting it. It is a very tough bacteria to fight. Typhoid Fever is a very interesting bacteria and disease to study. It remains a public health problem in neighboring countries. The infection can be prevented easily by good sanitation, having a good water supply, and the effective use of Typhoid vaccines.
Most antibiotics including penicillin attack the cell wall of the bacteria that prevents them from synthesizing peptidoglycan which is a molecule that provides the bacteria strength to survive in the human body. However, there are multiple ways on how an antibiotic affects the peptidoglycan. For example is vancomycin, it affects the peptidoglycan but not in same manner as penicillin. A different class of antibiotics called quinolones targets DNA gyrase which unwinds DNA for replication. Since DNA can unwind because of the removal of the enzymes that do that bacteria can’t multiply.
Hot air drying is a conventional method for dehydrating food but for heat sensitive materials ,this method can cause deteriorative changes .to have much more effective dehydration a high power ultrasound system is applied. In such a case ultrasound waves are generated using the ultrasound system and then contacted with food samples directly. In the intersection between ultrasound waves and samples, ultrasound waves penetrate in samples which results in contraction and expansion of material and moisture evaporation from samples [1, 11, 13,
Sepsis can result from an infection in various parts of the body and although a lay understanding of sepsis might include a reference to blood poisoning, a positive blood cultures are not needed to diagnose it. About 90 percent of the cases of sepsis are caused by gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria, but sepsis can also be caused by viruses or fungi. Infection is the major reason for patient to be admitted in hospital and some patients may develop infection while in hospital or outpatient clinic. Infections can be found in any system of
Dumping in landfills is an ineffective solution of disposal of AF in the long term (Vasudevan et al.). Nearly 60% of AF constitute of proteins and lipids, which goes unutilized (Ozgunay et al. ).This waste product can be used for several applications and beneficial purposes that must be explored further. It would be an ideal substrate for fermentation processes as it would not only provide carbohydrates and beneficial molecules but also provide an effective solution for its disposal without adverse