Implementation of the seven Principles of HACCP: Principle 1 - Conduct a Hazard Analysis The application of this principle includes listing the steps in the process and identifying where significant hazards are likely to occur. The HACCP team focuses on hazards that can be prevented, eliminated or controlled by the HACCP plan. A report justifying the inclusion or exclusion of hazards and possible control measures are identified. (Brown, 2008:64) Principle 2 - Identify the Critical Control Points: This is a step or procedure at which control can be applied and a food safety hazard can be prevented or reduced to acceptable levels. CCP decision tree is used by the HACCP to help identify the critical control points in the process.
Samples of raw milk were collected on the day of arrival at the dairy plant. The samples were pasteurized at 63ºC for 30 min (low temp), 72ºC for 15 s (high temp, short time), 76ºC for 15 s and 82ºC for 30 min. The pasteurized samples were then stored at 6 º C and 10ºC for 14 days. The samples were analyzed for standard plate count and Bacillus count immediately after pasteurization and after 14 days of storage. Pasteurization of milk at 72ºC and 76ºC significantly (P < 0.05)
1.1.7 Challenges of Implementing HACCP Although the food manufacturing sector and large firms in catering and hospital sector in many countries have adopted HACCP and implemented its various guidelines, revelations by Griffith et al. (2010) was that there are concerns when it comes to HACCP implementation in smaller organizations such as hospitals. Consequently, a number of scholars have doubted its efficiency and reported various potential reasons for the reduction in HACCP efficiency and failures. The analysis of challenges faced in HACCP implementation revealed that elements such as management commitment, competence and knowledge, planning, training, resources, human resources and documentation were the main challenges identified. Each of these elements was ranked based on their effect on the efficiency of HACCP (Kassa et al.
Assess each HCP’s perception and attitudes towards the IPC protocol and its recommended practices. Three instruments were used to collect the data: a self-administered questionnaire, an observation checklist for HCP’s practices, and an observation checklist for the three hospitals’ physical environment. The researchers distributed the questionnaire to HCPs and stayed in the hospital to receive the completed questionnaire during the same shift, repeating this process three-four times in different shift each week for ten successful weeks. The researchers completed the observation checklist while waiting to receive completed questionnaires. This allowed the researcher to observe the HCP’s levels of compliance with the IPC protocol.
FMEA/HACCP). 4. Discuss the benefits and limitations of this analytical process. PART 2: Is this a good risk question or not? Discuss the following risk question using the learnings from the lectures slides.
Then, the samples were treated in the processing vessel in which pre-vacuum was established to 6 kPa. Pre-vacuum steps provided well diffusion of saturated steam to the inner parts of the chickpea and also reduced heat transfer coefficient of the medium during DIC processing . After the pre-vacuum steps, the samples were exposed to the saturated steam (3-5×102 kPa) for a given time (1-10 min) and the large diameter valve is suddenly opened to reduce steam pressure to the vacuum pressure in the processing vessel. Processed chickpea samples then were finally dried to about 6% of moisture
In the alkali-catalyzed process, the presence of free fatty acid (greater than 1 mg/g KOH) and water in the oil can cause high amounts of undesirable soap formation, also consuming some quantity of alkaline catalyst and reduces the eﬀectiveness, all of which result in a lower conversion. Therefore, for the feedstock with high free fatty acids, it is essential to have a pretreatment stage before subjecting it to transesteriﬁcation process.  1.2 Pretreatment Process for Waste Cooking Oil Pretreatment of waste cooking oil consists of physical treatment for removing the suspended solid contaminants and chemical treatment processes mainly for deacidiﬁcation. A ﬂow sheet giving the diﬀerent approaches for pretreatment of waste cooking oil is shown in Figure 2. Issariyakul et al.
The minimum requirements of this step are to pasteurise the milk to ensure food safety and to bring its temperature to the boiling point in the first effect of the evaporator, for thermal efficiency. However, the functionality of the final product can be determined and modified by this processing step; preheating conditions range from conventional pasteurisation to 90°C for 10 minutes or 120°C for 2 minutes. The most significant result of such heating is denaturation of β-lg, to a degree depending on the severity of heating. During subsequent evaporation and, if applied, spray-drying, relatively little denaturation of the whey proteins occurs, as the temperature of the milk generally does not exceed 70°C (Singh and Creamer, 1991). However, further association of whey proteins with the casein micelles can occur during evaporation, probably because the decrease in pH reduces protein change, facilitating association
This first principle which involves in controlling a hazard analysis whereby the effort towards evaluates transparent risks that involved in production of a product. The first part of conducting certain risks involves identifying of any possible hazards which might occur within the food product. Mayes (1999) remarks that “the hazard analysis is very likely the basic principle in the whole HACCP system and the one people realize to be the most difficult.” There are three categories of hazards that must be taking into consideration during a hazard analysis which are biological, chemical and physical (Tompkin, 1994). First, biological hazards are usually those that count in microorganisms such Escherichia coli or Listeria monocytogenes. Dissimilar pathogenic bacteria can also be considered a hazard (example; Salmonella and Clostridium botulinum).
Depending on the design, size and quantity of the stores to be manufactured, process for bulk production is selected. Most commonly used manufacturing processes include injection, blow, extrusion and compression moulding however a particular product may need a specific set of processes in order to achieve product in a cost effective and time bound manner. As an example, process for production of water bottles as per army requirement of quality and quantity, is described here. The PC water bottle can be produced either by Extrusion blow moulding or by Injection Stretch Blow Moulding process. Both processes have its own advantage and limitations but Injection Stretch Blow Moulding process is recommended for manufacturing of these bottles because end product has excellent visual and dimensional quality especially of threads and neck portion, no pinch-off scrap, excellent thickness control and surface defects are very less.