HIV/AIDS Literature Review

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Introduction Human Immune deficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a well-known global health epidemic. Statistics reveal that South Africa has the highest record of the epidemic compared to any other country in the world with 6.1 million people living with the disease (UNAIDS, 2013). Of this figure the province of KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) has the country’s predominant HIV/AIDS problem (Cullinan, 2013). The young people, especially youths are most exposed to this infection (UNAIDS 2008; UNAIDS 2010). In reality, sexual behaviors such as poor or no use of condoms, Multiple and Concurrent Sexual partners (MCP) and beliefs as well as attitudes are the factors that has influenced the intense increase of the HIV transmission…show more content…
The former suggests that women remain first and foremost the epicenter of transmission and they are the ones are blamed because of their tendency to deviate from the traditional events that would encourage them to remain chaste (cf. Naidoo, 2014).
The latter rejects this view and strongly emphasizes the need of eradication of these events which are the violation of human rights (Leclerc-Madlala, 2001).These different points of view reveal that there is a need to bring together advocatory groups (the traditionalist and the modernist), so that they would have a common and shared beliefs based on modern health practices instead of stigmatizing women in a more patriarchal basis. In this sense, focus should be directly turned onto the traditional health practice which remain reluctant to adopt modern centered
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For example, Christine Varga (1997), Donald et al. (2001) both condemn pre-marital sex particularly among young women. Putting into consideration the role of culture in South Africa, One could probably assume that the country's culture had played both negative and positive roles on the lives of South Africans in terms of HIV intervention. Vagra (1997: 14) states that:

There is a Zulu cultural belief in KZN that a female body conceals dirt and disease and this could be one of negative aspects of Zulu culture in terms of HIV intervention due to the fact that the blame is often being put on women rather than men. Furthermore, Airhihenbuwa & Dewitt Webster (2004) also remarked that HIV/AIDS prevention, care and support in Zulu society was more focused on women than men. Some of the measures, stated by Airhihenbuwa & Dewitt Webster (2004) includes, training women about the use of condoms. In this context, this would simply imply that women could be ones who make decisions before or/ and in a course of sexual intercourse, which is not true in mostly African traditionalist societies including Zulu culture (Tallis,

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