Factors like these influence the organisation’s leadership, management and other structural systems. The strategic planning processes are also time consuming for managers and leadership spend a lot of time researching, preparing and communicating these approaches, the approaches are also challenging to apply because such implementation processes require clear communication plans which must be applied in a way that needs full and undivided attention they also require active and full involvement and responsibility by all team members; from leadership right down to ordinary members across the
Guest’s model of Human Resource Management (HRM) One third activities of the organization is based on HRM, it has crucial part in success of any organization, HRM concerned with the key activities related to the people. The process of planning, selection, recruitment, training, appraisal all are under the umbrella ho HR. The word HRM is really about managing people, and the term “resource” means the correct and right use of people as other resources. But these individuals are different from other resources because these can be motivated or de motivated, they can think and cooperate, they’ve some emotions and feelings. So HRM is a complex methodology.
Organizational Stress and Leadership Organizations experience change constantly whether they planned for it or not. According to Tavakoli (2010), stress and resistance are not inevitable reactions to organizational change. Rather, what makes organizational change stressful or susceptible to the resistance of employees is the way people are treated during the implementation of the change. There are some situations where the change is forced, for example when a market shifts due to political agendas and the organization’s services or products are no longer desirable. This type of organizational change can cause companies to downsize and/or lay-off employees to cut costs (Lussier & Achua, 2015) which causes leadership and employees tremendous stress.
Case management is a significantly vital modality in the delivery of efficient services for individuals who are experiencing difficulty. This approach organises interventions that addresses the needs that impede the life opportunities of people through a collective process of assessment, planning, facilitation and advocacy for services and options. Although there is a variety of case management models and a diverse set of theoretical lenses to peer on human development (Ministry of Justice, 2009). These models can be contingent on the dominant sector or priority, such as the learning and development field or health sector. The variation amongst these areas insinuates the diversity present in literature concerning these models and the most appropriate
Modern organizational studies attempt to understand and model these factors. Organizational studies seek to control, predict, and explain. Organizational behavior can play a major role in organizational development, enhancing overall organizational performance, as well as also enhancing individual and group performance, satisfaction, and commitment. Organizational behavior is particularly relevant in the field of management due to the fact that it encompasses many of the issues managers face on a daily basis. Concepts such as leadership, decision making, team building, motivation, and job satisfaction are all facets of organizational behavior and responsibilities of management.
A larger danger of groupthink occurs with companies that are dealing with stressful internal or external conditions or have faced failure in the past, especially as the result of deviating from standard procedure. Organizations with a homogeneous work force are also more subject to groupthink than companies that embrace multiculturalism, a balance between men and women, and a range of age
Other trends towards empowerment, TQM, teamwork, and interpersonal business make it necessary for managers, as well as employees, to develop the skills that will enable them to handle new and demanding assignments. 4. Empowerment: organizations have to find ways of using the knowledge that currently exists. Too often, employees have skills that go unused. Efforts to empower employees and encourage their participation and involvement more fully utilize the human capital
(b) the motivation problems that derived from cultural diversity within the company (Hofstede, 1980). (c) the agency problem concerning to geographic and cultural dispersion causes exponentially governance and transaction cost (Roth and O’Donnell, 1996). According to the Agency theory, the relationship between parent company and subsidiaries of MNEs can have a problem due to information asymmetry, since the parent company not always receives the information on-site in time or sometimes wants information that is unavailable at the time. Tallman and Lee (1996) support that the downside of being a MNE is at beginning, when the company operates in foreign countries, the company consumes a great deal of money to build a foundation in the foreign country and attempt
Subsequently, management by objectives has gained an increasing publicity and largely influenced many industrial organisations like Fords and General Motors, amongst many others as shown in Peter Starbuck’s case studies (Starbuck, 2012:99) and is currently a taught topic within the academic curriculum in areas such as management and administration. Koontz & O’Donnell (1968) define MBO as a management system which permits both the senior manager and his subordinates establish organizational goals, break set goals into short term ones, determine the procedures or methods of achieving set goals. It also defines the responsibilities of the members of the organization and establishes a system of evaluation to ensure that set goals are achieved at minimum cost. They further say that MBO establishes a reward system which serves as the only means of recognizing and rewarding the hard work.
Most of the time, it requires numerous stakeholders involved at different level of the hierarchy. Indeed, strategic plans are conceived by a group of managers, selected by another and projects to achieve the objective, implemented by once again another group. Thus, a good project alignment with the strategy is essential to counterbalance the multiplicity of stakeholders, and to get a common goal without wasting any resource. To do that, projects must be properly selected and in coherence with the project portfolio. Portfolio management is driven by the strategies of the organization; it can be achieved with the proper selection of programs and projects to be implemented, prioritization and adequate provision of resources.