In “What’s Eating America,” Micheal Pollan criticizes America’s dependence on fossil fuel and fixed nitrogen instead of organic farming. In 1947, a munition plant used explosives to make chemical fertilizers. After WWII, the surplus of ammonium nitrate are converted into agricultural purposes. Although the earth’s atmosphere consists of 80% nitrogen, almost all the atoms are useless. In 1909, Fritz Haber discovered a way to fix nitrogen molecules by using electrical lightning.
Since alkenes are immiscible with concentrated HBr, tetrabutylammonium bromide is used as a phase-transfer catalyst. It forms a complex with HBr and extracts it from the aqueous phase into the organic phase where the alkene is. This dehydrates the acid, making it more reactive so that the addition reaction is possible. Rapid stirring is required in order to maximize the surface area
Twenty-four hundred years later, chemical warfare still has little strategic value until World War I. In chapter five, Kean discusses how chlorine and bromine were first experimented during World War I. The French first practiced with bromine which proved to be ineffective when the shells had no immediate effect on the German troops. Soon after the attempt, a famous Jewish-German scientist named Fritz Haber emerged with big contributions to German warfare. He began a process to “capture” nitrogen and created an efficient killing explosive.
The methods of industrial agriculture are techno science, economic, and political. The Industrial farming system was “developed decades after World War II”. This system was designed to chemically invest food production. This was done by featuring single crop-farms and animal production factices. This way of production is necessary because it’s a more efficient way to feed people.
Chemical Warfare Chemical warfare became more advanced during World War 1 when the Allied nations defended their nations and advanced on German forces. Chemistry became an integral part of the Allied force’s retaliation and research rapidly advanced to discover improved methods of chemical use (Krause, 2013). The purpose of this paper is to summarize research the peer-reviewed article, provide an explanation of how article contents relate to chemistry, reveal my insight on the article’s premises, and discuss its relevance to the Christian Worldview. Article Summary During World War I German forces utilized chemical warfare against the Allied forces. The French military took action, despite being unprepared, to provide a countermeasure against
The author utilized the example of radiation which occur naturally in the soil and the atmosphere since the creation of the planet, it has been harness with the creation of the atomic bomb which released Strontium 90 during detonation. This radiation is now part of our environment and our bodies and it will remain there after our dead. Furthermore, she used the process of bio-magnification to illustrate the effects of over 500 synthetic chemicals in existence that are used as pesticides , insecticides and herbicides which are designed to eliminated they such called “Pest” and which our bodies does not have the time to adjust to their presence. She stated that it should not be called with those names but it should be called “biocides”. This term refers to the capacity of these chemicals to eliminate all types of organisms in other words these chemicals are considered nonselective pesticides which overtime are able to create resistance and are able to “flareback”.
Joseph Wilbrand was a German chemist who would pave the way for one of the most deadliest explosives. He discovered one of the most important chemical compounds of the 18th century. Born August 22, 1839 In Giessen, Germany, the town he grew up in was about 200 miles away from Munich with a population of 80,000 people. His full name is Julius Bernhard Friedrich Adolph Wilbrand but he would go by Joseph. His father was a German forensic scientist, his name was Franz Joseph Julius Wilbrand, and there's no record of his mother.
Being a part of the earth’s nitrogen cycle, nitrous oxide has always been floating in the atmosphere. Agriculture, fossil fuel combustion, wastewater management and industrial processes; however, are increasing the percentage of N2O in the atmosphere. Firstly, there are two ways by which agriculture affects the percentage of nitrous oxide. For one, factories produce synthetic fertilizers which are needed to enhance the yield from crops, which is the main reason farmers invest their money in such fertilizers. Also, nitrous oxide is released when the nitrogen in livestock’s manure and urine is broken down.
The poll showed 63% of people in the United States believe in climate change and 72% of them believe there should be funding for renewable energy research (Yale). The Union of Concerned Scientists article “The Hidden Cost of Fossil Fuels” explains how fossil fuels impact our lives by destroying the environment, economy, and human health. The increase of temperature from the trapped greenhouse gases from fossil fuels will cause more extreme weather events within the next century (Fossil). Supporting article summary Prove solution The Union of Concerned Scientists article “Benefits of Renewable Energy Use” explains how renewable energy positively affects the environment, economy, and human health. There will be minimal or no greenhouse gas emissions.
Reported methods used for six membered oxygen and nitrogen ring synthesis have their own advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, development of new and efficient methods is imperative especially to address the issue of diastereoselectivity. Among these methods stated, this thesis mainly discusses Prins, aza-Prins cyclization and HDA reactions in detail for the construction of six membered O- and N- heterocycles. 1.3.1. Prins Cyclization Reaction In 1919 a Dutch chemist H. J. Prins has first reported