[..] Power is employed and exercised through a netlike organization; individuals are the vehicles of power, not its points of application” . Therefore, power is a system, a network of relations encompassing the whole society, rather than a relation between the oppressed and the oppressor. Conceiving power as strategy and not as possession means to think of it as something that has to be exerted and not something that can simply be acquired. It is not localized exclusively in certain institutions or individuals, but it is rather a set of relations dispersed throughout society. Furthermore, Foucault argues that: “power and knowledge directly imply one another; that there is no power relation without the correlative constitution of a field of knowledge, nor any knowledge that does not presuppose and constitute at the same time power relations”.
In the text, Morgenthau claims that the realism is based on unchanging human nature, creating “a world of conflicting interests” and conflicts. Morgenthau also believes that we can find the desire to dominate in all kinds of human associations (family, organizations, state …). In addition if some state would be freed from desire for power it would be destructive for it – it would fell victim to the powers of others. Therefore the struggle for power is not only permanent but it is also necessary. Morgenthau closely examines the definition of the concept of power.
The concepts, oppositions, and hierarchies are constructed by power or social forces and, in turn, construct power. Discourses, serving specific interests, are conceived of ways of classifying and ordering by Foucault. Thus, it is the concepts, oppositions, and hierarchies which determine what is considered knowledge and truth or what is regarded normal and abnormal in a particular period. New Historicism employs Foucault’s technique of understanding a particular time’s episteme, i.e. the conventional mode of gaining and organizing knowledge which unites the diverse discourses and warrants their coherence within an underlying structure of implicit assumptions about the status of knowledge, to approach a literary text as a representation of or reaction to the power-structures in a given society.
Introduction In this essay, it is argued that the media needs ethical guidelines to control the power mass media owners and practitioners have over general public. Mass media’s nature and role in society is of communication that is written, broadcasted, or spoken that reaches a large audience. Collins Dictionary defines Mass media as “the means of communication that reach large numbers of people in a short time, such as television, newspapers, magazines, and radio” It is prominent, enough to have transferred itself on to society and have created a culture for itself. Society is assaulted, for lack of a better term, with messages from a multitude of sources; cinemas, print advertisements and magazines, and more. These messages promote products
Hayward (2006) adds to this that Lukes wrote that absolute power is being able to get others to desire what you want them to desire. Both Morris (2006) and Hayward (2006) identify that for Lukes the relation between power and responsibility are crucial to his radical view. Furthermore, Lukes denies the notion of ‘power to’ and thus his exclusive notion of power is that of ‘power over’ while in fact ‘power over’ is merely a sub-set of ‘power to’. (Isaac, 1987; Morriss, 2006). Hayward (2006) and Morriss (2006) revisit Lukes’ book on Power as Lukes revised and republished the book.
An ideology is a form of social or political philosophy in which practical elements are as prominent as theoretical ones; it is a system of idea that aspires both to explain the word and to change it. Ideology is a different form of beliefs about man, society and the universe. It is understood as a way of thinking abouth the cultural and social programme of a political movement launched to emancipate suppressed group from the exploitation of more dominate social class. Ideology is a term developed in the Marxist tradition to talk about how cultures are structured in ways that enable the group holding power to have the maximum control with the minimum of conflict. An ideology begins with the belief that things can be better and it a plan with the help of which a society can be improved.
what she wanted. But she made the man do otherwise due to the incorrect way of exerting power. In persuasion, power and control of resources depend upon mutual influence within a group. Turner (2005) also identified “coercion” which is another form of power that depends on influence and authority, which leads to attitudinal change and also brings about resistance to the loss of freedom. This means that the source must have influence and authority over those that are willing to be its coercive agents.
The mass media filters information regarding politics to its viewers and the viewers are not provided with reliable information. This has caused the viewers to believe and interpret what is not accurate thus, affecting their judgement. It is believed that mass media results to press framing and selective exposure in order to protect the image of politicians and hide important information. Moreover, media is bias in shaping their preferred outcome and filters media content to its viewers. The themes that we managed to extract from these journals are press framing, selective exposure, media is bias in shaping their preferred outcome and filtered content.
If act differently media are grossly disregard of democratic and human rights of citizens. It is often said that the power of the media lies in manipulating the public. We believe that it is just the opposite notion: powerlessness of the media to disseminate the truth. If the media cannot resist the influence of different groups, this means that it is not free. It is the subordination of the media and freedom.
The media that accept pressures at the same time giving up their freedom because they are entering into a vicious circle orchestrated to create "reality" according to the requirements of hidden centers of power which have control over the means of mass communication and privileged access to information. The justification for this behavior lays in the claim that "he who has the power