1995, Kunin and Lawton 1996, Schwartz et al. 2000, Hector et al. 2001b, Minns et al. 2001, Sax and Gaines 2003). These explanations are persuasive in their own right, but ecologists have increased some additional to deal with, like what would be the resultant of alteration of biodiversity on ecosystem properties, such as productivity, carbon storage, hydrology, and nutrient cycling?
Various adaptations of interspecific competition such as commensalism, mutualism, parasitism, predation, amensalism, neutralism and protocooperation also modify community structure and ecosystem functions (Lafferty, 2009; Walther, 2010; Yang and Rudolf, 2010). In higher organisms climate can persuade alteration of vegetative community which envisage affecting biome integrity. According to the study conducted by Millennium Ecosystem Assessment there is a shift of 5-20% terrestrial ecosystem, especially coniferous forest, tundra, scrubland, savanna and boreal forest biome
Duration, severity and rate of imposed stress are the factors underlying the plant response to stress (Munné-Bosch and Alegre, 2004; Omezzine et al., 2014). Under natural conditions, Plants and surrounding environment as well as their neighboring plants can interfere together during seed germination and seedling growth causing various morphological, physiological and biochemical responses (Tanveer and Rehman, 2010; Shanker and Venkateswarlu, 2011; Harun et al., 2014). However, plants, including weeds, grow in the same community are competing for moisture, nutrients, and light, they can also affect a neighboring crop growth and yield by releasing allelochemicals into the growing environment (Rice, 1984; Kim and Shin, 1998; Kadioglu et al., 2005; Tanveer and Rehman, 2010). Such plants, that negatively impact other plants through the production of secondary metabolites, are considered allelopathic. Wheat (Triticum sativum L.) and pea (Pisum sativum) are of the most ancient crops known to man.
As an ecologist with the Zimbabwe Parks and Wildlife Management Authority, I play a dual role of being the technical expert in the field and an advisor to management on conservation issues. Technical roles include ensuring maintenance of biodiversity through conservation of ecosystems, species and ecological processes. This involves planning management, research, monitoring and extension work within and outside protected areas. Undertaking problem orientated research, which will have an impact on wildlife conservation and policy; preparation of park plans; ensuring sustainable utilisation; monitoring and establishing databases and publishing of scientific articles. Conducting population surveys; Environmental Impact Assessments are part of the work I do.
Asteraceae family is a plant that can adapt well in the mountain slopes, and has a role in balancing ecosystems such as preventing erosion and enriches the soil organic matter (Kumolo & Utami 2011). Family Asteraceae mostly classified as weeds on agricultural land, and has been reported by Sunaryo et al. (2012) and Uji (2010) that a species of Eupatorium odoratum, Austroeupatorium is a species that invade several locations in the Park. With Salak and Mount Gede National Park Pangrango. Data Survey Global Invasive Species Database (IGSS 2015), shows that there are several species of undergrowth and tree species are classified as invasive plants.
Introduction The number of plant species inhabiting Earth keep our planet highly diverse as well as play a vital role in sustaining our environment and our population. The understanding of plant species and their diversity and abundance is important because plants are vital to maintaining Earth and its atmosphere. In our research project, we addressed the question: How does the abundance of the ponderosa pine species vary within different elevation levels on the Bear Peak Trail? The article by Wathen et. al (2014) studies the spatial and temporal distribution of species richness within two National Parks.
Part One: Island Biogeography deals a lot with size and shape. “One of the reasons islands are important in the more general structure of ecology, biogeography, and conservation biology is that islands, as at least relatively isolated areas, are excellent natural laboratories to study the relationship between area and species diversity. When we fully understand the relationship, it will be applicable to fragments of habitat that human activities protect. We all know those sanctuaries are important, but we need to know what and how much we can protect in them” (Island Biogeography). The term may not mean an actual island but it could also be an ecosystem.
The three groups are ecological services, social benefits and biological resources. Tropical forests most importantly provide us with some critical life sustaining ecological services. Services like oxygen production, water purification, climate moderation, conversion of solar energy from the sun into carbohydrates and proteins, soil formation and greenhouse gas removal (Biodiversity BC, 2007). Though these services can be provided by green plants in general, through its large presence all around the world, tropical forests play a key part in contributing and maintaining these ecological
Maintaining a genetic diversity gives the population protection against change, which allows it to evolve and adapt to a new environment. The last example is ecological biodiversity, which is the variation in SC160 Basic Biology Assignment 08 the ecosystems that are found in a region or the whole planet. We see this type of biodiversity evolution all around us. For example, the forest of Maine versus the forests of Colorado. Plant and Animal
It sustains the natural area that is comprised of animals, plants and other living things. Why biodiversity is important It is the founding block of most of the vast array of ecosystem services that play an important role in the well-being of humanity, and natural ecosystem in general. Besides, biodiversity helps to maintain the ecosystem in balance. That is, recycling and storage of nutrients, combating pollution, stabilizing climate, forming and protecting the soil. Moreover, it provides medicines and pharmaceuticals, food for the human and animal population.