degradate at different temperature7. Thermal degradation of CMCs possess an initial weight loss in the region of 30-160 °C is mainly due to the removal of loosely bound water (moisture) on the surface of cellulose4,22,30,38,45. CMCs depict the major degradation takes place in two-steps. First weight loss occurs between temperature around at 180-250 °C with 7.5 wt.% loss is ascribed to the depolymerization of hemicellulose, pectin and cleavage of glycosidic linkages of the samples46. The major weight loss occurs at increasing the temperature of 270-430 °C with 88 wt.% loss is due to the degradation of lignin and cellulose.
Critical Micelle Concentration The CMC (Critical Micelle Concentration) is the amount of a surfactant molecule in a bulk stage, beyond which aggregates of surface active agents, so-called micelles. The CMC is a significant distinctive property of surfactants for its application. Generally molecules have two different constituents with differing attraction for the solutes. The component of the molecule that has an empathy for polar solutes, like water, is assumed to be hydrophilic. The component of the molecule has empathy for non-polar solutes, like hydrocarbons, is assumed to be hydrophobic.
The heat energy released when new bonds are made between the ions and water molecules is known as the hydration enthalpy of the ion. The hydration enthalpy is the enthalpy change when 1 mole of gaseous ions dissolve in sufficient water to give an infinitely dilute solution. Hydration enthalpies are always negative. Factors affecting the size of hydration enthalpy Hydration enthalpy is a measure of the energy released when attractions are set up between positive or negative ions and water molecules. With positive ions, there may only be loose attractions between the slightly negative oxygen atoms in the water molecules and the positive ions, or there may be formal dative covalent (co-ordinate covalent)
4. Effect of catalyst concentration on physico chemical properties of the product. The data (Fig. 4) shows that as the catalyst concentration increases, hydroxyl value of the products increased. The data also describes that as the catalyst quantity increases, the solubility of the product in MTO decreased.
Because of inhabitation property of water toward complete reaction, the methanol and water mixture is separated from the oil phase. Afterward, further methanol and acid catalyst can be added and the reaction continued for the next step. We should note that if the number of pretreatment steps be increased, the ester yield reduces owing to the solubility of ester in methanol . For that reason, in this study, we tried to reduce the FFA level through one step pretreatment to achievement high ester yield and also save the time for producing BD. After each esterification, total WCF was washed twice with hot and distilled water to eliminate any reminded acid in
Antioxidant inhibit or delay the oxidation process of the ingredients in the formulation. Glycerin act as, preservative, sweetening agent and increase the viscosity of the suspension. (PE) Xanthan gum act as suspending agent and viscosity-increasing agent. Suspending agent helps to redisperse the particle easily upon shaking. Liquid glucose act as a sweetening agent whereas titanium dioxide act as opacifier.
The absolute value and difference between two membranes increases with feed water temperature. IV. PERMEATE RECOVERY RATIO: Recovery ratio affects system performance, i.e. permeate salinity and feed pressure, by determining the average feed salinity. The average feed salinity is calculated from feed salinity using the average concentration factor.
Oxime formation is essential for reducing sugars, like glucose, namely in that way ketones and aldehydes are converted into oximes, which locks reducing sugar into open-chain configuration, thus eliminating the anomeric center of the sugar and its ability to form furanoic and pyranoicring structures, and consequently multiple peaks in chromatograms[4-8]. Generally acyclic oxime-TMS syn- and anti- derivatives are present .According to the literature hydroxylamine hydrochloride diluted in pyridine (2-2.5%) was used in present study as a reagent for oxime formation. For optimization of oxime formation process, different reaction times and different temperatures were tested. Oxime reaction was completed in two hours at room temperature for mannitol but not for glucose.Oxime reaction was completed in in one hour by
GMS concentration and whipping time were significantly affected by foam density. From the table above, foam densities decreased as GMS and whipping time increases up to 2.5% and 15minutes respectively. The reduction in foam densities of all the varieties at whipping time of 9min to 15min and addition of GMS concentration of 1.5 to 2.5% is due to foam formation. This result was in agreement with the trend observed by Falade et al. (2003) who reported that the density of cowpea foam decreased steadily with increased whipping time and the concentration of the foaming agent (i.e., glyceryl monostearate and egg albumin), also Karim and Wei (1999) reported that as the concentration of methocel increased, the star fruit foam density decreased while its volume increased.
The contact angle of untreated fabric found 1490 (fig.2 (b)) it is noted that the hydrophobic nature due to lack of polar groups on the substrate. After the 2mins Oxygen plasma treatment the contact angle decreases from 149o to….. 0o, again while increasing the plasma treatment time, 2,3,4,5 the contact angle considerably reduced. In 6mins plasma treated surface shows the maximum reduction,