Hakka Culture

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Introduction The Hakkas are Han Chinese people with origins related to Hakka-speaking provincial areas of Guangdong, Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Sichuan, Hunan, Zhejiang, Hainan and Guizhou. The Hakkas originated from the lands bordering the Yellow River (today, the Chinese provinces of Shanxi, Henan, and Hubei). During the years of the Northern Song dynasty and the following Southern Song dynasty (1127-1279), the attacks by Jin people forced many people to move to the south. They mostly moved to Tingzhou, an area in southwest Fujian, forming the Hakka group. The Hakka people achieved some notable advances, particularly in developing cultural activities to enrich their communal life. Due to their agrarian lifestyle, Hakka have a unique architecture…show more content…
From 11th to 13th centuries on, under a specific historical migration background and a special natural environment, Tulous evolved from the traditional art of earthen houses. Fujian Tulou witnessed the whole process of this historical period. From the late Warring States period to the early Western Han period, the technology of rammed earth for construction became relatively mature in Fujian. In the Song, Yuan and Ming dynasties (11th to 14th centuries), the civilian residential buildings were built paying special attention to military defensive functions because of war flames and invasion of pirates in the coastal areas. In the Southern Song dynasty for particular, when the Hakka settled down in Jiangxi and Fujian provinces, and extended eastward and southward in Fujian, serious conflicts between them and the indigenous people, called Fulao, started to happen. To meet the needs of living and survival, they adopted the form of castle with high defensive functions allowing the clan to live. The enclosed rammed earthen buildings evolved from the rammed earthen castle, and fortified buildings are incorporated by the functions of living and…show more content…
With the development of economy, the residents wanted to live in better houses. Besides, the growth of population gave rise to the eagerness to build larger constructions to meet the common interests of the clan. The large building could house hundreds of clan members under one roof, so as to maintain the clan’s safety and prosperity. Mansion-style Tulou buildings of rammed earth and those of square, circular and various other shapes were built. From late 19th century on, the traces of overseas culture could be found in some of these buildings, the architectural types and decorations integrated with western style had occurred in some
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