For clarity and emphasis, this study is anchored on Canale and Swain’s (1987) communicative competence theory. According to Canale and Swain (1987), there is a need of communicative competence as a synthesis of an underlying system of knowledge and skill needed for communication. In their concept of communicative competence, ‘knowledge’ refers to the conscious or unconscious knowledge of an individual about language and about other aspects of language use. According to them, there are three types of knowledge: knowledge of underlying grammatical principles, knowledge of how to use language in a social context in order to fulfill communicative functions and knowledge of how to combine utterances and communicative functions with respect to discourse
Clause combining is basically concerned with the clausal relationship traditionally studied in terms of coordination and subordination. Lehmann defines it as a "relation of dependency or sociation between the clauses” (182). For Foley and van Valin, clause linkage is the unification of the "internal morphosyntax of the clause with the complex structures of the sentence, and ultimately, of discourse" (238). They study clause linkage in terms of the binary positions of the characteristics like [+ -] dependency and [+ -] embeddedness. According to them, complex sentences have three types of nexus as illustrated in the figure 1.
Speech event is a basic unit of communication in which speech and use of language are considered crucial. 3. In the relation, speech event is an
The discourse analyst focuses on â€œan investigation of what that language is used forâ€, it means purpose and aim of communication, as has actually been mentioned before (Yule 1983: 1). Levels of analysis Crystal (1997: 15) mentions a few levels of analysis which are highly important for a detailed analysis of a text. Each level represents one area of linguistics such as lexicology or phonetics and phonology. On the basis of these areas different levels of analysis can be distinguished: phonetic and phonological, graphological, grammatical, lexical. Verdonk mentions importance of pragmatics and claims that â€œpragmatics is concerned with the meaning of language in discourse, that is, when it is used in an appropriate context to get particular aimsâ€ (Verdonk 2002:
2.3.2 Theory of Semiotic Triangle Semiotic Triangle was developed by Ogden and Richard. The theory will be used to analyzed the kinds of sign as stated in the first problem. This triangle consist of three elements, they are (i) thought of reference, (ii) symbol, (iii) and referent. Symbols direct and organize, record and communicate. It is Thought (or usually say reference) which is directed and organized, and it is also Thought which is recorded and communicated.
According to this theory, there are three points involved in the description of tense: the speech time (S), an event time (E) and a reference time (R). Based on this theory, tense is factored into the twin relationships. First, tense is factored between an abstract reference point and the time of the speech act, corresponding to the tense proper. Second, it is factored between event time and the reference point (aspect) (Binnick 1991: 454). Within this system, there are three points in time, namely the moment of speaking (S), the time of the event (E) and the reference time (R), which are important for describing the temporal relationship between
A semantic role is a relationship that a participant has with the main verb in the clause. While syntactic analysis focuses on sentences and all the function words in a sentence, the semantic analysis focuses primarily on meaning, i.e. on the proposition expressed in a sentence. A proposition is meaningful and it can be expressed either in different sentences or in parts of sentences. In order to do semantic analysis, we have to distinguish inflection from a proposition.
Processes are realized as a configuration of transitivity functions which represent the process, the participant in the situation, the attributes assigned to participants, and the circumstances associated with the process. This leads Halliday (1994) to the assumption that ideational grammatical metaphor is called metaphors of transitivity. In line with Haliday's assumption, Taverniers (2003:8) explains the reason is that “the grammatical variation between congruent and incongruent forms applies to transitivity configurations and can be analyzed in terms of the functional structure of the configurations.” Thus, in its analysis, the congruent forms, which are the typical forms of lexicogrammatical realization and incongruent/metaphorical forms are compared to see the grammatical contrasts between the constituents. IGM is the first type of grammatical metaphor, which is concerned with the construction of an alternative view of reality, by means of rearranging lexciogrammatical
Systemic functional linguistic (SFL) is a theory of language that it focuses around the notion of language function; a central notion is "stratification", such us that language is analysed in terms of semantics, context, lexico-grammar and phonology-Graphology. The context focuses on three kinds. They are field, tenor and mode. Field deeps on what the text is taking about, for example "medicine, education or science". Tenor is the relationship between participants.