Critical Micelle Concentration The CMC (Critical Micelle Concentration) is the amount of a surfactant molecule in a bulk stage, beyond which aggregates of surface active agents, so-called micelles. The CMC is a significant distinctive property of surfactants for its application. Generally molecules have two different constituents with differing attraction for the solutes. The component of the molecule that has an empathy for polar solutes, like water, is assumed to be hydrophilic. The component of the molecule has empathy for non-polar solutes, like hydrocarbons, is assumed to be hydrophobic.
Modeling of Contact Angle for a Liquid in Contact with a Rough Surface When a solid is in contact with liquid, the molecular attraction will reduce the energy of the system below that for the two separated surfaces. This is expressed by the Dupré equation Figure-1 2.1 Wenzel Model: The Wenzel model (Robert N. Wenzel 1936) describes the homogeneous wetting regime, as seen in Figure 2, and is defined by the following equation for the contact angle on a rough surface. where is the apparent contact angle which corresponds to the stable equilibrium state (i.e. minimum free energy state for the system). The roughness ratio, r, is a measure of how surface roughness affects a homogeneous surface.
The conditions that happening are known as protonation process. Positive ions arising from -OH2+ and -NH3 + pull with the anion PO43-, so that will be captured in the copolymer. Then to process the phosphate desorption in distilled water almost like at pH 3.09 (H+ height) solution. This is presumably due to ionic interactions of phosphate anion with -NH3+ that more slightly due to the number of H + only comes from natural dissociation process of distilled water. Moreover, the desorpsi interaction of phosphate in the copolymer is more dominated by inter and intra-molecular interactions and hydrogen bonding between the functional groups in the copolymer with phosphate anion.
The aim of preforming this study is to evaluate the effect produced by the drug on the body (pharmacodynamics) as well as the effect of the body on the drug (pharmacokinetics). This study provides more appropriate prospective on the overall effect on the living subjects. We will be reviewing the invivo tests done on nanogels in some published articles.
There are two variants in HPLC based on the relative polarity of the solvent the normal and the stationery phase. In Normal phase, the column is filled with small silica particles and the solvent is non polar. The compound will run through the column where the non polar mixture will not stick to the silica and will pass the column faster than the polar compounds which will stick to the column. In reversed phase the column is the same size as the normal phase. The only difference from normal phase is that the column now is modified in order to attach long hydrocarbon to it surface.
The chloride ion is more polar since it is above bromine on the periodic table and is more prone to hydrogen bonding due to its smaller size. Chloride ions are worse than bromine ions for nucleophilic attack, because the chloride ions are fully solvated and are not as available to attack. This is why Bromine ion is better nucleophile because is less electronegative and is willing to give up electrons. 3. What is the principal organic by-product of these two reactions?
In a Cation Exchanger, pH range of 0.5 – 1.5 units lesser than the isoelectric point of the protein of interest is chosen. These are the stable ranges of the pH in which either the polypeptide will get attached or get eluted. If this range is not maintained, and the pH is highly increased or decreased beyond its stability range, then the polypeptide will get denatured. Equilibration – For the system to be ready for ion exchange the starting conditions are set up. All the mobile ions get attached to the opposite charge of the stationary phase resin molecules.
Explain the relationship between the ionisation of amino acids and pH |Structural diagram of the neutral structure| |Structural diagram of positively charged structure| |Structural diagram of negatively charged structure| Explain how the form of an amino acid, whether positively charged, negatively charged or neutral, depends of the pH of the solution ? If you increase the pH of a solution of an amino acid by adding hydroxide ions, if this is done then the hydrogen ions will then be removed from the -NH3+group . . To test if it is now a negative ion a process called electrophoresis.although it is colourless its position can be detected using ninhydrin. If the amino acid has dried and then heated gently it would appear as
The osmotic pressure coefficient must be determined for different solutions. It has been determined by various researchers and investigators to be less than unity and slightly increases with increasing solution concentration if the solute is not known or it is complex, we have to use mass concentration instead of molar concentration. For convenience: this model assumed to be at a constant temperature and is incorporated with the other constant Y which simplifies osmotic pressure to solute concentration coefficient. The value of Y was assumed t-o be constant over the operating range of the solute concentration. In corporation of osmotic pressure equation into the expression for the solute flux Eq.
Thus the knowledge of the effects of substrate concentration on enzyme activity would aid drug designers in utilizing competitive inhibitors that will inhibit the enzyme more effectively. The essentials of enzyme activity and total change were tested in being exposed