The Hanafi school is given name after the Muslim scholar Abū Ḥanīfa an-Nu‘man ibn Thābit. He is a tabi’i whose legal views and perspectives were protected and preserved mainly by his two most fundamental disciples, Abu Yusuf and Muhammad al-Shaybani . It is primary in the countries that were once a part of the historical and powerful empire which is the Ottoman Empire and the Sultanates of Turkic rules in the Indian subcontinent, northwest China and Central Asia. The Sunni Hanafi school is powerful in the Arab Middle East, India, Pakistan and last but not least, Afghanistan. The followers of this school and the followers of Imam Abu Hanifa are majorly found in Pakistan, India, Turkey, Iraq and many more.
His father named Mohammad Taqi Shariati was a reform minded cleric and lived his life by doing lecture in his own religious hall (Bayat, a: 1990). His father strong advocacy for reforms in Iran had influenced Shariati’s intellectual mind the most. Despite their family including his father being shiites, the conservative Ulama of Iran accused his father as a Sunni Muslim and a Wahhabi (Abrahamian, 1982). Wahabbi the ideologue of Sunni Saudi Arabia, is Iran’s enemy in terms of propagation of religion due to some differences although both are Muslims. The major difference between Sunni and Shi’a is the issue of who succeeds Prophet Muhammad.
Ghazali 's major contribution lies in religion, philosophy and Sufism. He was a prolific writer. His immortal books include Tuhafut al-Falasifa (The Incoherence of the Philosophers), Ihya al- 'Ulum al-Islamia (The Rivival of the Religious Sciences), "The Beginning of Guidance and his Autobiography", "Deliverance from Error". Some of his works were translated into European languages in the middle Ages. He also wrote a summary of astronomy.
In an attempt to find favor in the eyes of Turkish in the region, the Safavids decided to convert to a form of Shiism - he forced the Sunnis to convert to the religion, Twelver Shiism. Twelver Shiism was a religion where it was believed that there were twelve religious rulers after Muhammad, but the twelfth hid. Believers thought that the 12th would come back one day, and many even believed that Ismail was the 12th. The followers of this religion wore red hats
The ‘true Islam’ Al-Afghani preached was in accord with reason, modern sciences and modernity itself. Al-Afghani attributed the relative decline of the Islamic world to political decay, tyranny and despotism. The theme of returning back to the true religion is repeated throughout the document. The intellectual aim of Al-Afghani was to revitalize the Islamic Community through internal political and spiritual reform. However Al-Afghani also appealed to nationalism in believing that it would aid Muslim peoples in their resistance to foreign western influence and domination.
Fariba, Laila, and Marriam were three Muslim women that Hosseini used to compare and contrast their qualities and ways of life. Unlike Laila and Marriam, Fariba’s husband did not control or abuse her, in fact, she showed more authority over him than what the typical Muslim wife would. She was unafraid to fight with her husband Babi, and she did not receive any consequences or beatings for lashing out against him. For example, as Fariba would yell at Babi, he would not obediently and quietly wait for her to stop raging (Page 108.) Furthermore, she did not become forced or stuck in a marriage she did not want.
Introduction: Abul Hasan Ali bin Muhammad bin Habib-al-Mawardi was born in 974 AD. He was the first writer in the entire Islamic history who wrote on the subject of political theory. He received traditional education and has done much work on subjects like law, Quran and ethics. But his principal concerns were government and administration, and most of his work is about running the government at all levels and world of law. He is one of the most learned jurists in the history of Islam.
Appendix 1 1. Baha'u'llah (1817-1892): Literally, "the Glory of God." The title by which Mírza Husayn Ali Nuri, the Founder of the Baha'i Faith, is known. He was born on Nov. 12, 1817 to a noble family of Persia (now Iran). He spent His 40-year ministry in prison and in exile.
He memorized the Quran by heart, learned grammar, Jurisprudence, Hadith, rhetoric, philology, and poetry. (Mohammad, 1979) Ibne Khaldun Books • Kitab Al-Ibar It is a book related to history. • The Muqaddimah • Al-Taarif bi Ibne Khaldun Ibne Khaldun on Economics Ibne Khaldun