G. F. Handel and J.S Bach were both composers who were born in Germany. Bach came from a family with a rich musical background, while Handel did not (Kamien, pg 143). The compositions of Handel and Bach, Messiah and Wachet Auf, both have a religious context and include the ritornello technique. As for the texture of these compositions, both are characterized by a polyphonic and imitative texture. Additionally, string instruments are used in Messiah and Wachet Auf.
Gloria from Pope Marcellus Mass was composed by Palestrina as a sacred choral work performed purely in 6-part choirs including a soprano, an alto, two tenors, and a bass. Its texture is mixed mostly by homorhythmic and particular parts of polyphony. Compared to that of Cantata No.140 of Bach, its pure a cappella medium provides audience a deeper sense of holiness than 4-part choir with orchestra in the former. Beginning solely by an tenor singing in Latin with haunting echoes from the open space in the first line[Palestrina, Gloria, from Pope Marcellus Mass, 0:00-0:08], Palestrina brought the picture of a christ chanting in a heavenly church in monophonic. Palestrina gave high priority to the overall clarity of the work.
The oratorio originated in Italy, and was considered a musical story based on an Old Testament character from the Bible. Even though Giacomo Carissimi was the father of this genre, with his work Jepthe, the oratorio as we know it today was not developed until later by the hands of Schütz, J.S. Bach, Handel, and Mendelssohn. This paper will discuss the contributions to the genre from these great composers. Before unravelling the contributions of Schütz, it is important to know the background of the genre that directly affected the development of the oratorio: the Lutheran historia.
Bach in the Baroque, Mozart in the Classical, Shubert in the Romantic, and John Williams in The Contemporary or Modern. Some composers born in between periods would be considered both. Felix Mendelssohn was one of these composers. His works stunned his time period. Felix Mendelssohn was a talented composer who assisted in the transition from the Classical Period
Leland Ryken proposes two forms of Christian truth, inclusively and exclusively (203). For art to be inclusively Christian it contains general themes that are found within other cultures and religions such as loving and caring for others and the importance of trust. The exclusively Christian truth presents truth that comes from the Bible, such as a way of salvation through forgiveness, the pardon of God, or any events from the Bible. Piero della Francesca 's painting, The Resurrection, previously mentioned is considered exclusively Christian art. Good Christian art tells of a story and truth that everyone longs to know because we are all human and “Christianity … assumes meaning in art and life to be attainable” (Kilby 22).
Guillaume Machaut’s Notre Dame Mass is important to music history because it is the first known setting of an entire mass to polyphony music. In “Agnus Dei,” the two lower voices sing a theme based upon a rhythmically altered Gregorian chant, known as cantus firmus. Its ternary form and polyphonic texture is common in sacred music and is also seen in the “Kyrie” in Palestrina’s Pope Marcellus Mass. The harmonies of the “Agnus Dei” include stark dissonances, hollow-sounding chords, and full triads. Both “Agnus Dei” and “Kyrie” have three sections, thought to symbolize the holy trinity.
Paul intended, as evidence suggests, that this letter be circulated among the numerous churches in the province of Asia. Hays & Duvall (2011) note, however, that “the letter became associated more permanently with Ephesus because it was the leading city in the region” (p. 838). Paul seems to have no particular reason, i.e. no specific circumstance to address, to write this letter other than to strengthen the believers in Ephesus and Asia Minor. Paul cared deeply for the people that he had contact with and wanted to encourage them to stand firm in sound doctrine, holy living, and love (Barton, Comfort, Osborne, Taylor, and Veerman, 2001, p. 800).
His use of the prophetic message of Isaiah as divine logos rhetorically identifies the “True Israel” as Christ and all those who follow him, and well as the inclusion of the Gentiles, their spiritual journey, and designing the Christian community (Bates, 2009, pp. 1-3). Second, his understanding of the Trinity, as noted earlier, was judged against the standards of the Nicaea, presumably providing much debate to formulate the Trinity as agreed upon in the Nicene Creed. Lastly, his ability to blend the Gospel with Greek philosophy was crucial in understanding Logos: Christ as the Son of God, and Christ
The singers sang this piece with many of the same tone quality as in Messiah, but the overall balance was better. In Feast of Carols, the men could be heard just as well as the women. In the future, I would love to sing this piece because it has a magical element to it. The piece is constantly morphing seamlessly into the next small section of a carol. At the conclusion of this wonderful piece, the choir and orchestra received a massive standing ovation from the ecstatic crowd.
Through hard work and dedication, I have learned many lifelong lessons from show choir, and made many friends that will have a lasting impact on my character. As a result of being a part of show choir, I have grown much more confident over time. I am so much more confident in front of people because of show choir. I used to freak out before presentations, but show choir has showed me how to put on a smile, and fake your way through it (of course I still get nervous, but not quite as much). I am also much more confident in my body because of show choir.