Personality is the way one behaves, thinks and feels. Theorists are interested to learn what shapes personality, what causes one to behave, think and feel the way one does. Different theorists have different beliefs in what causes these individual differences. These individual differences can be split into two categories, nature and nurture. Nature would be environment while nature would be the brain and the genes, also known as genotype.
He critically observes the human behavior and personality. He figures out the authoritative and dominating factors that shape the person 's personality, thinking, cognition and motivational processes. According to Mulhollem,"Bandura simply observing the others and incorporating this concept into his theory". Social cognitive theory is a crust of the psychosocial, cognitive and behavior processing. This theory clearly asserts the humanistic elements such as individuality, contemplative self-awareness and cogitative reaction.
Spearman described general intelligence as the existence of a broad mental capacity that influences performance on cognitive ability measures. Those who hold this traditional view, believe that intelligence can be measured and expressed by a single number, such as Intelligence Quotient (IQ) tests. Common IQ tests include the Stanford-Binet tests and Wechsler Scale which both measures intellectual and cognitive abilities in children and adults. The idea is that the underlying general intelligence influences performance on such cognitive assessments (Cherry, 2016). However, Gardner proposed that numerical expressions of human intelligence does not accurately represent people’s abilities.
This paper, contrasts social conventions with individual psychology, has a means of explaining the nature of human language. It will also take a closer look at controversies regarding the nature of language and the debate of psychology over structuralism. Noam Chomsky has already established first language acquisition as an innate human ability. In his opinion language is part of the individual and therefore a result of natural human biology development. However, in Fernand de Saussure’s opinion language is not only part of a social construct by it is controlled by social conventions.
Personality is a complex concept that has been described in a variety of ways. Thus the classic connotation of personality is associated with the discovery of the real causes of individual’s feelings and thoughts, expressed or projected through the mask of behaviour (Chamorro- Premuzic; 2015). 1.3 Determinants of personality 1.3.1 Heredity Heredity consists of genes inherited from parents. Biological heredity can be inherited from forefathers in the form of chromosomes while social heredity is inherited from preceding generations in the form of social traditions, customs and skills. Sharma (2016) describes heredity as the genetic inheritance received by every individual at the time of conception.
Carl Jung thought that some parts in unconscious are much bigger then sexual or aggressive emotions. In his writings about the person he explains that individuals are motivated by some unexplainable forces and forms that comes from the DNA. He believes that genetic code has a soul material that explains people’s aspiration to creative progressiveness and physical perfection. Jung’s theory about a psychological behavior helps us to understand the nature of people’s emotions, their relationship with he nature etc. it means the social behavior.
The Biological Bases refer to the hereditary factor that influences the Basic Tendencies. The Objective Biography refers to behaviors, and is considered as the product of the personality system. It is also affected by the Characteristic Adaptations. Both the Objective Biography and External Influence affect each other. The External Influence refers to culture, social trends, coincidence and variables in life situations (McCrae & Costa, 2008).
16 Personality Factor (16 PF) Introduction There have been different definitions of personality. According to Allport, Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his characteristic behavior and thought (1961). According to Eysenck, personality is influenced by a combination of genetics, biological factors and environment. Day to day when we describe peoples personalities, we refer to terms such as kind, funny, outgoing and worriers etc. these are known as trait terms and Eysenck asserts that we have some of these traits from birth.
It gives a significant piece of evidence for the chromosome theory of inheritance. There are many reasons why gene mapping is important. Firstly, it is the anatomy of human genome and it is useful in the analysis of genetic diseases. It is also useful in the development of gene therapy and it gives clinically useful information about linkage. Gene mapping is the first step of identifying a gene.
While genetics play a major role in psychology, experiences are often the primary factor in the development of one’s personality. Nurture, a person’s surroundings and experiences, often determines his outlook on life and how he reacts to certain situations. (120 Myers and DeWall) This develops the set of behaviors and ideas, which combined, are called a personality. Nurture is the focus of developmental psychology, which is the branch of psychology dealing with the physical, social, and cognitive development as a person progresses through life. (120 Myers and DeWall) Sometimes, specific instances and events can leave an impression on a person for life.