Edmund Husserl, the founder of phenomenology, is arguably one of the most important philosophers in terms of the development of twentieth-century continental philosophy. Husserl develops phenomenology as a new rigorous eidetic science of consciousness (the study of essence) which subsequently inspires a generation of philosophers and social scientists in Germany, France, and Great Britain. First this paper will look at the background from which Husserl’s philosophy emerged. Secondly, Husserl’s main philosophical periods will be discussed. Thirdly, the essay will examine the phenomenological reduction in detail and explore subsequent criticism.
The Secretariat (Article 7 of UN charter), responsible for the administrative activities of the UN, it is headed by secretary general is Ban Ki Moon. The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), the Trusteeship Council and the International Court of Justice (ICJ). Realism and Liberalism are two of the main theories in International Relations best used to describe the structure of the United Nations. Classical Realism dates back to the works of Thucydides, Nicollo Machiavelli and Thomas Hobbes. Realism is the dominant theory of international relations because it provides the most powerful explanation for the state of war that is the regular condition of life in the international system.
Review Hedley Bull - one of the prominent scholars of international relations in 20th century- worked on international relations at the Australian National University, London School of Economics and University of Oxford until his death (1985). His book- the anarchical society- was published in 1977 dealt with study of order in world politics. As he emphasized at the beginning of book, with this book he sought to illustrate systematic view of international society and order nor giving normative statements to form it. Here I am going to focus on part 1 that argued about the “nature of order in world politics”. Firstly, in order to make imaginable the conception of order in world politics Hedley defined what order mean in social life and then
The United States arose out of the Cold War as the only remaining hegemon, making America the principal actor in a unipolar global order. Though the U.S. has endured as the dominant economic and military power in the world, Huntington instead chose to focus his exposition on the salience of multiculturalism to a valuation of global power. In a free market society, technological modernization has had a prolific effect on multiculturalism (via economic and social convergence criteria). The European peace project has led to the creation of a multicultural confederation which actively disseminates Western politics, social norms and liberal economic values to establish itself as a global power. Europe has institutionalized multiculturalism both
Basis of modern science of conflict is studies of German, Austrian, American sociologists of the 20th century: G.Simmel, L. Gumplowicz, D. Smalley, W. Sumner, R. Dahrendorf, Parsons. Conflict was recognized as normal social phenomenon. A number of biological, psychological, social and other factors inevitably generate conflict. Most scientists refer Georg Simmel to the founders of Theoretical conflictology. Namely Simmel introduced in the scientific revolution, the term "sociology of conflict."
1. How does the idea of Risk articulated by Ulrich Beck, modify the traditional concept of1) Modernity 2) Science And what are the social consequences? Give examples from Climate change, Nuclear energy, Pollution etc.? Answer – German Sociologist Ulrich Beck is known as one of the most influential thinkers of the twentieth century. He along with Anthony Giddens coined the idea of a ‘risk society’ and challenged the traditional concepts of modernity and science, which were hallmarks of the industrial class-based society.
The principles were outlined in a January 8, 1918 speech war aims and peace terms to the United States Congress by Woodrow Wilson. Several points addressed specific territorial issues in Europe, but the most significant sections set the tone for postwar American diplomacy and the ideals that would form the backbone of US foreign policy as the nation achieved superpower status in the early 20th century. According to Fourteen Points article, it states, “One of Wilson’s purposes in delivering the Fourteen Points speech was to present a practical alternative to the traditional notion of an international balance of power preserved by alliances among nations—belief in the viability of which had been shattered by World War I”. Wilson’s Fourteen Points played very important role in world politics over the next years. Third of all, there are several points that were obtained as a result of American participation in the WWI.
Introduction F. Scott Fitzgerald, the American novelist, managed to write a novel which has decisively influenced the view of people about the American society in the 1920's. This novel, which was published in 1925, is called The Great Gatsby. Fitzgerald's novel mostly deals with status, power, wealth as the concepts of the American Dream at the beginning of the 20th century. The author provides the reader with a deep insight into the American society as well as the aristocracy and the false beliefs that are built around them. The novel illustrates well how the American Dream control human behavior.
The policy makers certainly depend on the concept of the state structure, The state level of analysis which it includes the domestic factors , focused on how this factors had the ability to influencing the foreign policy of the state, factors Such as political institutions, public opinion, interest groups and political parties, the state-level analysis enhances our understanding of policy. This level of analysis emphasizes the characteristics of states and how they make domestic and international strategy choices and apply them. This paper will argued the impact of the neoconservative ideology on the foreign policy of united states from 2001 to 2009, the changing of the policy of George W Bush’s administration by using the state level of
“While political science focuses on existing or possible theories and practices of social, political matters, political philosophy focuses on the normative aspects of political theories and practices.”1 Western political philosophy considers man as the core of the development, whereas indian philosophy gives importance to society, community based development. Indian political thinkers have followed this trend, and it is visible in every concept that they have brought forth. Rabindranath tagore was one unconventional political thinker, that india was blessed to have. RABINDRANATH TAGORE “Rabindranath tagore was born in Calcutta, India into a wealthy Brahmin family. After a brief stay in England (1878) to attempt to study law, he returned to India, and instead pursued a career as a writer, playwright, songwriter, poet, philosopher and educator”2 His philosophy and writings were extremely important elements in the renaissance of bengal and india at large in the early twentieth century and shaped the bengali