They should be actively involved in its implementation and its importance in lifelong learning. Generally, students judge their own work against a given criteria, provide information on how they can improve on that work in future and then grade their work. When the word “formative” is used in conjunction with assessment or evaluation, it connotes an improvement process while the word “summative” is used to describe a decision making process. 2.6 Distinctions between Self-assessment and Self-evaluation Assessment and Evaluation are necessary and complementary in education. Educators use assessment and evaluation to help their students build lifelong learning skills.
Richard Dienstbier (1989) questions the emphasis the GAS places on the role of chronic stress and proposes another model of stress, Physiological Toughening, which focuses on the duration of stressful events. He points out that stressors vary in their durations. Mandler 's (1982) Interruption Theory of stress provides a transition between the internal component of stress and the interaction component. Mandler defines stress as an emergency signaling interruption. The basic premise is that autonomic activity results whenever some organized action or thought process is interrupted.
While self-transcendent values are characterized by praising welfare and acceptance, and as such are positively correlated with propensity to help, self-enhancement ones are correlated to seeking power and achievement, and therefore are negatively correlated to helping behavior (Schwartz, 2010; Paciello et al., 2013a; Boer & Fischer, 2013). However, through correlational analysis of questionnaires measuring values, propensity to help and prosocial moral reasoning, Paciello et al. (2013a) found that self-transcendent values are prone to being influenced by the situation. For example, Paciello et al., (2013a) found that self-transcendent values are more likely to temper self-interest and elicit
Stroebe and Schut consider it fundamental to successful coping (Stroebe & Schut, 1999). It is a “process of juxtaposition of confrontation and avoidance of different stressors associated with bereavement” (Stroebe & Schut, 1999, pg. 215). The bereaved will at times be confronted by loss and at other times find relief through distractions and attending to new things. Optimal post-loss adjustment is posited to occur when the bereaved individual smoothly transitions or oscillate between LO and RO processes (Shah & Meeks, 2012; Stroebe & Schut, 1999).
In general, persons with low self-esteem are motivated more by self-maintenance than by self-enhancement (Covington & Beery, 1976). Self-awareness theory is motivation to change arises from one 's awareness of an incongruity between one 's idealized self-concept and one 's self-image. The individual 's evaluation of self as less than desirable motivates him or her to improve his/her behavior in order to maintain self-esteem. At first glance, "self-awareness theory" appears to be a cognitive consistency theory; but in fact the self-esteem motive, activated by a negative self-evaluation, is offered as the major impetus for change (Hull & Levy, 1979). Duval & Wicklund emphasize self-focused attention as the initial step
The major objectives of this research were to examine the association between students’ thinking styles and the preferred learning environments constructed by teacher interpersonal behavior. Furthermore, this study aimed to examine the relationship between teachers’ thinking styles and the preferred learning environments constructed by teacher interpersonal behavior, investigate the effect of teachers’ interpersonal behavior on students’ thinking styles in learning, and study the contributions of students’ thinking styles to learning achievement. This study found that students’ and teachers’ thinking styles could predict the preferred learning environments constructed by teacher interpersonal behavior, the learning activities provided the opportunities to train students in the use of their teachers’ preferred thinking styles, students’ thinking styles and learning achievement were related. Furthermore, the results of this study showed that students ' thinking styles changed in all classes of experimental groups, with teachers ' teaching in teaching being the main factor
It refers to the feelings people develop concerning the level of control over their destinies. People with internal locus of control are more likely to take responsibility for their actions, usually have a strong sense of self-efficacy. Whereas, people with external locus of control blame outside forces for their circumstances, do not believe that they can change their situation through their own efforts, and frequently feel hopeless or powerless in the face of difficult
Stress can affect people of all ages, genders and circumstances and can lead to both physical and psychological health issues. Stress is any uncomfortable emotional experience accompanied by predictable biochemical effects, physiological effects, cognitive effects, and behavioural effects that might influence health (Baum 1990; Steptoe and Ayers, 2005; Taylor, 2006). These predictable effects on the body depend on how an individual appraise an event, thus, the way an individual perceive an event contribute significantly towards the determination of whether an event is stressful or not and also a determinant of the level of susceptibility to stress-related diseases (Lupien et al., 2009; McEwen, 2009). Generally, events appraised as stressful include; salient events, event overload, ambiguous event and uncontrollable events (Foreshaw, 2006; Steptoe and Ayers, 2005). Stressful events are termed as stressors: a stressor is any real or perceived physical, social, or psychological event or stimulus that causes our bodies to react or respond (Glanz & Schwartz, 2008).
Managing Stress Yerkes-Dodson Law The Yerkes-Dodson Law suggested that there is a distinct link between arousal (stress) and performance, however after reaching peak stress and performance, increased stress reduces performance. This bell graph visually illustrates The Yerkes-Dodson Law. To achieve optimal performance, stress should be managed within a the productive range. 4 A’s of Stress Management Avoid Unnecessary Stressors -Learn to say “no” to unnecessary additional responsibilities. -Avoid stressful situations.
Chapter 2 “A working model of stress, coping and resilience” provides a working model of stress that underpins the approach of the book, and looks at the importance of life events and the concept of helpful and unhelpful negative emotions. The working model of stress highlights why some people become stressed where as others can cope, perform well, are resilient and in good health. The stress response occurs in a number of stages. There are three key responses to stress: Psychological, behavioural and physiological. Long term stress can lead to some serious medical