Harappan Civilization In Pakistan

1873 Words8 Pages
Yadav and Vahia (2011) have studied the reconstructing the history of Harapan civilization in Pakistan. The Harappan civilization was spread over large parts of western region of the Indian subcontinent. Its earliest roots can be found from 7000 B.C in Mahrgarh but its peak urban period is around 2500 to 1900 BC. It declined completely by 1300 BC. At its peak, it covered more than 30 percent of the present landmass of the Indian subcontinent. We show that the pattern of Harappan civilization can be divided into four major phases: the first three phases mark an increase in the stranded of living triggered by the arrival of a specific organizational change while the fourth phase is marked by a decline due to the failure of the society to solve…show more content…
According to them, the Indus Civilization represents the earliest manifestation of urban development in the plains of the Indus Valley and its extension along the Arabian Sea-coast. The four principal settlements so far excavated provide the material to reconstruct the cultural content of the civilization. Two lies in Pakistan: Harappa, usually identified with Hariyupiya of the Rig-Veda, is situated on an old bed (sukbrawa) of the river Ravi in Sahiwal District of Punjab, and Mohenjo-daro4 (literally ‘mound of the dead’) is on the right bank of the Indus river in Larkana District of Sind. The other two sites are in western India; Lothal is situated on the Sabarmati river at the head of the Gulf of Cambay on the west coast of India, and Kalibangan (literally ‘black bangles’) lies some 310 km north-west of Delhi along the left bank of the now-dry Ghaggar (old Sarasvati) river in northern Rajasthan. Naqvi (1993) has studied the Indus Valley Civilization-cradle of democracy. In all the highly developed civilizations of the past, the pervasive influence of an imperial authority can be felt, providing patron age for the arts and directing the evolution of society. A close examination of the archaeological discoveries made in the Indus valley seems to believe the presence of such an imperial authority in this civilization. The Indus Valley Civilization had a well disciplined way of…show more content…
It was more than a repelling environment for great cities like Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa, large amount of local fuel were available in the Indus valley. The Indus valley people were mainly dependent on irrigation and overseas trade which were possible because of the rain fed soil and the easy access to sea. Falling off in agricultural standards, internal breakup of the administration, lack of planning, untidy housing and the use of old bricks in the reclining days were some of the glaring reasons to show the growing apathy of the people towards maintenance and order. A large number of people fell victim to disease and pestilence spread all over the cities. People began to move southwards to Lothal and Saurashtra region in search for food and shelter. Seven layers of the civilization have been found after excavation in 1924, which indicates that the civilization was seven times built and seven times ruined due to some ecological
Open Document