Swimming is usually safe, but skin irritation and burning is possible in areas of high concentration of red tide. 1972: A red tide was caused in New England by a toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium (Gonyaulax) tamarense. The red tides caused by the dinoflagellate Gonyaulax are serious because this organism produces saxitoxin and gonyautoxins which accumulate in shellfish and if ingested may lead to paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) and can lead to death 1976: The first PSP case in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo where 202 victims were reported to be suffering and 7 deaths 2005: The Canadian red tide was discovered to have come further south than it has in years prior by the ship (R/V) Oceanus, closing shellfish beds in Maine and Massachusetts and alerting authorities as far south as Montauk (Long Island, NY) to check their beds. Experts who discovered the reproductive cysts in the seabed warn of a possible spread to Long Island in the future, halting the area's fishing and shellfish industry and threatening the tourist trade, which constitutes a significant portion of the island's
Focusing on certain natural phenomena with explanation based on experiment data, natural sciences clearly explain the cause of marine contamination problems. Whereas social sciences use social theories and focus more on broader issues like social phenomena which do not explain clearly about contamination. It is important to do deep research because contamination in water especially in marine ecosystem is a very complex problem. Similar example is from tsunami disaster in Japan in 2011, radioactive which contaminated marine ecosystem is able to enter food chain and to accumulate in animal bodies. If human being consumes these contaminated organisms, toxic compound will be accumulated in human body.
Back before the 1890’s Clostridium perfringens used to be known as Clostridium welchii. F.W. Andrews and E. Klein discovered that Clostridium perfringens was associated with food poisoning, and in just a couple years specifically 1892, this microorganism would be found in different types of gangrene, appendicitis, puerperal fever, and enteritis. (3) .. Gas gangrene was very widespread in World War 1, complicating 6% of open fractures and 1% of all open
Other guidelines were exceedances were observed are the BC’s working sediment Guidelines and the contaminated sites regulation sediment quality criteria. An excess level of selenium, which is taken into the body in water and foods, can cause significant side effects like nausea, vomiting, nail changes, irritability in the nose and throat (producing coughing, nosebleeds, dyspnea, bronchial spasms and chemical pneumonia). Exposure to lower levels of Arsenic in the short term can cause nausea and vomiting, swelling and redness of the skin, decreased production of red and white blood cells, abnormal heart rhythm, damage to blood vessels and a sensation of “pins and needles” in hands and feet. Long term arsenic exposure can lead to cancer of the
In other cases, blood flow does not improve, and parts of the colon start to die. This is extremely serious and even life threatening. If this happens, surgery may be required. In some cases, parts of the colon may need to be removed. What are the causes?
When you inhale cigarette smoke, which is full of cancer-causing substances (carcinogens), this causes changes in the lung tissue to begin almost immediately. At first your body may be able to repair this damage, but with each repeated exposure, normal cells that line your lungs are increasingly damaged. Over time, the damage causes cells to reproduce abnormally and eventually cancer may develop. The cancerous cells can quickly grow into large tumors that can rapidly spread to the brain, liver, bones, and other parts of the body. Some monoclonal antibodies trigger the immune system to attack and kill cancer cells.
In her experiment she founded “ fish found these naturally irritating chemicals unpleasant too. Thier gills beat faster, and they rubbed the affected area on the walls of the tank, lose intrest of food and had problems making decisions.” You can say fishes almost react the same as humans do when in pain or sick. When something irritates me the first thing I always do is rub the area that's bothering me, and when most people are sick or suffering from an illness there are most likely to be distraught. If fishes can feel irritation on there body and rub against the side of the tank then they must be feeling a type of pain or burning sensation that would cause pain. If a fish couldn't feel pain they wouldn't run against the side of the tank neither would their gills would beat faster then normal.
The recent outbreak of food poisoning in South Africa that led to several deaths is Listeria(listeriosis). Listeriosis is an infection that is caused by consuming food contaminated by the bacteria Listeria. The infection can cause serious illness in pregnant women, neonates, adults with weakened or compromised immune systems and the elderly, and is capable of causing gastroenteritis in others who have been severely infected. Most people infected show no symptoms, but the elderly and very young are vulnerable. The outbreak would be discussed under the following Causative organism; Listeria monocytogene, is the organism that caused the outbreak.
There can be a direct DNA damage by radiation resulting in death of cells. The DNA damage can also be indirectly caused by reactive free radicals generated by the action of ionizing radiation on water molecules. This results in release of multiple cytokines like IL 1, IL 6, TNF beta etc., resulting in mucosal erythema and edema. Eventually the mucosal ulcers get covered by thick exudates forming a fragile pseudomembrane. RT also affects the salivary gland functions reducing and altering the salivary composition.