Harold Fromm's Theory Of Ecocriticism

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This chapter sheds light on the theory of ecological criticism as a literary critical theory, its beginnings, development, and characteristics. Moreover, this chapter discusses the basic assumptions upon which ecocriticism is based. In addition, it surveys how the concept of ecocriticism can be interweaved with other disciplines. It also brings to foreground the relationship between ecocriticism and spirituality. Furthermore, in the light of this chapter we examine and comprehend the Sufi understanding of nature and interaction with environment. We might also understand nature as sacred and spiritual part. The emergence of ecocriticism is one of the major literary developments in the past forty years. It offers a new specific interpretation…show more content…
In 1991, ecocriticism began to emerge as an independent critical theory, when Modern Language Association organized a session by Harold Fromm titled “Ecocriticism, the greening of literary studies." In 1992, at the annual meeting of Western literature Association, ecocritics formed the Association for the Study of Literature and Environment (ASLE), with Scott Slovic elected first president. ASLE is the first organized association to study literature and environment. Now, ASLE has branches in Japan, Germany, Australia, India and Korea, whose aim is to develop and exchange ideas about literature that deal with human-nature relationship. In 1993, ASLE published its own journal Interdisciplinary Studies of Literature and Environment (ISLE) which publishes articles from literary scholars and environmental historians. ISLE seeks to facilitate and encourage ecocritical theoretical writings and activities. Nevertheless, the concept of ecocriticism was used for the first time in William Reuckert 's essay " Literature and Ecology: an experiment in Ecocriticism." This essay contributed in bringing the meaning of ecology and ecological concepts to the study of literature. He made a suggest to apply ecology and ecological concepts to the study of literature. Reuckert 's defined ecocriticism in his essay as " the application of ecology and ecological concepts to the…show more content…
Simply put, ecocriticism is the study of the relationship between literature and physical environment. Just as feminist criticism examines the language and literature from a gender consciousness perspective, and Marxist criticism brings an awareness of modes of production and economic class to its reading of a texts, ecocriticism takes an earth centered approach to literary studies. (XIX) From this definition, literary ecocriticism focuses principally on the representation of physical environment and non-human nature in literary works. It ignores the social and linguistic construction of the text, and emphasize on the relationship between literary work and
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