The purpose of this lab is to examine the composition of three components of gas products of elimination reaction under acidic condition by conducting the dehydration of primary and secondary alcohol, and under basic condition by conducting the base-induced dehydrobromination of 1-bromobutane and 2-bromobutane. Then gas chromatography is used to analyze the composition of the product mixtures.
The purpose of this report is determine if sodium chloride is a viable option as a deicer on winter roads. To determine this, one must compare a multitude of factors. In this lab, the freezing point depression of water, enthalpy of dissolution, cost, and environmental impact will be discussed. A large factor in how effective a substance is as a deicer is it’s ability to decrease the freezing point of water. If the freezing point of water can be lowered, the outside temperature must be much colder to reach this new freezing point, resulting in less ice on the roads. These results a somewhat inaccurate due to the fact that when the solutions were actually freezing is difficult to tell. Some solutions froze slowly and showed a plateau, while others
The purpose of this lab was to see the hydrogen bonding properties by doing multiple experiments that had exemplified such things. In the drops of water on a penny, I had gotten two pipettes and counted how many drops of that liquid, either being soap water or regular water, could fit into a penny. The second lab called “Water down a string” there was two beakers and string, which was dampened with water. Holding the string at a 45 degree angle, I had to pour water from one beaker at the top of the string and have the water be transported by the string to the other. The third lab was “How curved is your meniscus” where we had to compare the curve of water, meniscus, in a glass graduated cylinder to a plastic cylinder. The last lab we had done was “Pickle
Introduction: Isotopes are explained as the variations of the number of neutrons that an element may have. Some isotopes are more common than others. This experiment was performed to help visualize the different isotopes of an element and show how some isotopes will appear more often than others.
Society and government require people to be obedient towards authority, but is it always the best thing to do? During the aftermath of World War II many of the major leaders of the Nazi regime were put on trial for crimes against humanity (History.com). These trials were known as the Nuremburg war trials, were most of the convicted proclaimed that they were “just following orders” (McLeod 584). Being an accomplice to a crime is also against the law. In the Nuremburg trials, those accused were not breaking the law that their government had created, they were actually following it. These individuals had to follow their orders and ignore their own moral laws to prevent disobeying the law. This shows how people need to focus more on following their
Based on my observations I hypothesized that both Herbert Run and the Commons stream would have a high level of nitrate, conductivity, and turbidity. I hypothesized this because of traffic, liter, and the waste and pollution in both streams. For the Commons Stream, the Conductivity was 1086µS/cm. The turbidity was 0 FAU. Last, the Nitrate level for Commons was 0.08 ppm. For Herbert Run the conductivity level was 687µS/cm. The Turbidity level was 0 FAU and the Nitrate level was 0.02ppm. I accept my hypothesis and reject parts of my hypothesis. I reject that both streams have a high turbidity level. Both streams’ turbidity level is zero. I accept that both streams have a high nitrate and conductivity level. Herbert run and commons stream have high levels of nitrate and conductivity but commons stream has a higher conductivity and nitrate level.
In this lab, the oxidation of a secondary alcohol was performed and analyzed. An environmentally friendly reagent, sodium hypochlorite, was used to oxidize the alcohol, and an IR spectrum was obtained in order to identify the starting compound and final product. The starting compound could have been one of four alcohols, cyclopentanol, cyclohexanol, 3-heptanol, or 2-heptanol. Since these were the only four initial compounds, the ketone obtained at the end of the experiment could only be one of four products, cyclopentanone, cyclohexanone, 3-heptanone, or 2-heptanone. In order to retrieve one of these ketones, first 1.75g of unknown D was obtained. 1mL of Acetic acid was then added to Unknown D and the solution was stirred. Next, 15mL of sodium
“Too spicy,” said Elijah, the son of Dr. Steingraber, after trying a food that some believe to be a stereotypical child’s favorite. In Steingraber’s essay, “But I Am a Child Who Does”, she writes about her accidental “human experiment”. Her experiment consists of her two children, Faith and Elijah, having a very particular food preference. Their taste perception was based solely on direct experience and was not exposed to any manipulating advertisements. However, she does not address that advertisements are righteously wrong. Steingraber’s experiment effectively argues that advertisements can impact a child’s view towards food by appealing to her readers’ emotions (pathos), logic (logos), uses an engaging tone,
The Milgram experiment was conducted to analyze obedience to authority figures. The experiment was conducted on men from varying ages and varying levels of education. The participants were told that they would be teaching other participants to memorize a pair of words. They believed that this was an experiment that was being conducted to measure the effect that punishment has on learning, because of this they were told they had to electric shock the learner every time that they answered a question wrong. The experiment then sought out to measure with what willingness the participants obeyed the authority figure, even when they were instructed to commit actions which they seemed uncomfortable with.
The intent of this experiment is to understand how hot and cold water interact with each other by combining clear hot water and black ice cold water. I hope to learn more about how hot and cold water interact with each other. As of now, I know that cold water is denser than hot water. Knowing this I formed my hypothesis. Being, if hot and cold water were combined, then the cold water would move beneath the hot water because cold water is denser than hot water.
The Little Albert experiment was a case study showing empirical evidence of classical conditioning in humans. The study also provides an example of stimulus generalization. It was carried out by John B. Watson and his graduate student, Rosalie Rayner, at Johns Hopkins University. The results were first published in the February 1920 issue of the Journal of Experimental Psychology.
For this paper, I chose to write about the Little Albert experiment The overall importance of this study was to discover if a human could be conditioned to develop a bias, fear, or generalized fear of an animal, object, or person based the stimuli placed around the involved person, animal or object. Watson & Rayner (1920) suggested that “in infancy the original emotional reaction patterns are few, consisting so far as observed of fear, rage and love, then there must be some simple method by means of which the range of stimuli which can call out these emotions and their compounds is greatly increased.” This means that before any conditioning occurs, the subject should have a pure response, but after minor and simple experimentation and conditioning,
The Stanley Milgram Experiment is a famous study about obedience in psychology which has been carried out by a Psychologist at the Yale University named, Stanley Milgram. He conducted an experiment focusing on the conflict between obedience to authority and personal conscience. In July 1961 the experiment was started for researching that how long a person can harm another person by obeying an instructor.