Unfortunately, it's normally crimes regarding anti-blacks. The Uniform Crime Reporting Program stated that in 2012, there were 3,467 victims of racially motivated hate crimes. They also stated that 66.2% were victims of an offenders anti-black bias and 22% were victims of an offenders anti-white bias. In Chicago, a black woman was charged with a hate crime against a white woman on a playground. The black woman punched, bit, and head butted the white woman yelling, "I'll cut you up white girl."
The killings of Eric Garner, Tamir Rice, Alton Sterling, Philando Castile, and a plethora of other Black Americans have shown that the manifestation of hate and fear towards individuals of color is still deeply rooted in the American culture. Furthermore, the systematic maltreatment of groups of people in America has extended far beyond just the black community; it has become painfully clear that members of the LGBTQ, Latinx, and Islamic communities are facing a similar level of
Today crime is no longer associated with murder, theft, and assault among other common offenses but rather the bracket encompassing crimes has increased. This is because in addition to these common offenses there are hate crimes and cyber crimes which are evolving as the world continues to change. The justice system has thus established crime laws that are meant to protect citizens in a nation against these crimes. The Mathew Sheppard and James Byrd act are hate crime laws designed to prevent hate offenses against individuals as a result factors such as gender, ethnicity, and culture (Mogul, Ritchie, and Whitlock, 2011).
Pros and Cons of Hate Crime Laws Hate crime laws are defined as a state law that involves threats, harassment, or physical harm and is motivated by prejudice against someone's race, color, religion, national origin, ethnicity, sexual orientation or physical or mental disability. The 1968 statute made it a crime to use, or threaten to use, force to willfully interfere with any person because of race, color, religion, or national origin and because the person is participating in a federally protected activity, such as public education, employment, jury service, travel, or the enjoyment of public accommodations, or helping another person to do so. However, in 2009, Obama signed the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act.
Defining a Racist On the FBI website the statistics for hate crimes committed in 2015, 59.2% of hate crimes were against African-Americans. A hate crime is defined as a crime committed against a certain group of person(s) which is why we need to define what a racist or racist comment is. Defining what a racist is could help decrease the amount of hate crimes committed against either Anglo or African-American people. Defining what a racist is could also help alleviate some tensions between Anglos and African-American, Jewish people and Christians, and Pakistanis and Indians. Malcolm Gladwell’s definition of racism helps clear out the misunderstanding and tension that some comments like Michael Irvin’s about Tony Romo’s athletic ability create.
Muslim hate crimes are on the rise, spiking since 2015. The relate accelerated even more after the election of President-elect Trump. In 2015, the hate crimes against Muslims has risen to its highest since 9/11. The total number of hate crimes against all groups of people has risen from 5,479 to 5,850 from 2014 to 2015. There have been many reported attacks, including one at CSU, California State University, where two women wearing headscarves were attacked.
The USA government crime data document seven types of antireligious hate crimes: anti-Jewish, anti-Catholic, anti-Protestant, anti-Islamic, anti-other religious group, anti-atheism ,agnosticism and etc. In our analyses, the data for anti-multi religions were omitted because of the small number of cases and the difficulty of interpretation. Due to the limitations in the data set, information about the offenders was not available. Therefore, chi-square goodness of-fit tests were used to test whether there was a difference in the incidence of hate crimes committed toward the six religious groups after adjusting the case numbers by subgroup populations. The results revealed differences of this type that varied across the 13-year period.
The argument that racial profiling by law enforcement helps apprehend more criminals is challenged in this quote by Jesper Ryberg, a professor in the philosophy of law. “The use of profiling of a minority may lead to a decrease in the offending pattern of this minority but may imply that the majority will offend more now that they are being searched less” (Ryberg). Basically, white people will get away with crime a lot more than minorities. Nobody can deny this because minorities simply have a higher chance of being searched than do whites. In order to protect the well-being of the whole country against the attacks from a terrorist group, a proponent of discrimination would say that profiling these people is nothing to be ashamed about.
Racial profiling has become a worldwide epidemic. Within law enforcement circles and its practices, has become a contentious issue. It occurs every day, in cities and towns across the country, where law enforcement and private security target minorities without evidence of criminal activities. Law enforcement is responsible for humiliating and frightening these groups with: detentions, interrogations, and searches. It can be triggered based on perceived race, ethnicity, origin, or religion.
Hate Crime is a “criminal offense against a person or property motivated in whole or in part by an offender's bias against a race, religion, disability, sexual orientation, ethnicity, gender, or gender identity.” If an African American commits the same crime as an Caucasian it is more likely for the black person to be charged and arrested due to the racial issues we have today. There are many pros and cons towards the issue of racial crime, but hate crime is still a very difficult issue for our country to overcome. In order to overcome the issue of hate crime it would require changing legislation, public and police attitudes.
Some of these hate crimes are turning into murders and spreading very quickly. Hate crimes are like messages being sent out to certain people in different groups. These messages being sent out to these people are letting them know that they are unwelcome in a particular neighborhood , school ,
Hate crime What distinguishes a hate crime from other crimes is an underlying motivation based on the victim’s group membership. There has been much debate over the constitutionality of hate crime laws and which groups (if any) should be protected by such legislation. Those against hate crime laws argue that it is a violation of First Amendment protections of free, association, and freedom of thought. The Supreme Court confirmed that freedom of thought is implied by the First Amendment in R.A.V. v. St. Paul which those against hate crime laws argue makes such laws unconstitutional.
In fact, according to a study of attitudes towards Muslim Americans post 9/11, after 9/11 “the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) reported a 1,700 percent increase of hate crimes against Muslim Americans between 2000 to 2001” (Khan). While discrimination towards Muslim Americans existed before, after 9/11 the general public’s view of Muslim Americans rapidly declined and resulted in an increase in the Muslim-terrorist stereotype as well as many individuals having to face unwanted hostility. In a study on microaggressions directed towards Muslim Americans, a participant shared, “’A truck driver said to my mom, ‘Say hi to Osama,”’ presuming that because she was Muslim she was associated with terrorism (Nadal). While in another case, a participant described how because his name was Osama, his seventh grade teacher “accidentally” called him Osama bin Laden during attendance, “but [he knew]
NCVS attempts to measure “dark figure” of crime. A national representation of sample household is used to collect data, individuals or households are units of analysis, and businesses are not counted only households (Chapter 6: Measuring Crime, n.d.). “Rapes and sexual assaults are ascertained through three questions in the NCVS-1 Basic Screen Questionnaire” (Victimization Surveys, 1998). Question 41a which asks, “ other than any incident already mentioned, has anyone attacked or threatened you in any of these ways (Exclude telephone threats); Any rape, attempted rape or other type of sexual attack" (Victimization Surveys, 1998).