Iceland was created by a hotspot, much like Hawaii, and due to a combination of hot spot activity and plate tectonics, Iceland has undergone many geologically processes. The mantle plume itself is traveling toward the northwest part of the island, creating amazing geological features as it goes. Some of Iceland’s unique features include volcanoes, geysers, lava fields, rift valleys, hot springs, and subglacial volcanoes. Currently Iceland has over 20 active volcanoes. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the mantle plume create earthquakes and new volcanoes.
Have you ever wondered why Hawaii is all islands? Before the Hawaiian islands the pacific plate moved over the hotspot. The hotspot caused the Hawaiian islands. The islands move move northwest of the hotspot causes the volcanos become inactive. The hotspot causes active volcanos, but as they move away they become less active.
Samoan 2009 tsunami report: What caused the earthquake and tsunami? On Tuesday the 29th of September 2009, a huge tsunami hit Samoa – as well as several other islands – and impacted many, leaving a path of destruction . Tsunamis are big waves that are generated from earthquakes, or volcanic eruptions that occur in the ocean . The tsunami – in the case of Samoa – was caused by an underwater earthquake . An earthquake is when the Earth’s surface shakes in response to the sudden release of energy in its lithosphere which then creates seismic waves .
It was the most powerful quake ever recorded. Earthquakes will occur on most plate boundaries, other than constructive as this is where new land is formed by magma moving into the gap on the plate boundaries (Alvarez, et al., 2014). Mostly happen on subductive and conservative plate boundaries examples of which are East Asia, when these boundaries crush against each other and create pressure. Eventually, the pressure will build up to a point where it overcomes the friction holding two sections of rock together. The sections will slip, relieving the pressure and creating an earthquake as the energy that was held in the two sections is transferred into seismic waves, also known as an earthquake (Alvarez, et al., 2014).
Due to stress they shift and cause the earthquake. that zone is more subject to seismic disasters. Tectonic, volcanic, collapse and explosion, are the four different types of earthquakes. A tectonic earthquake is one that occurs when the earth 's crust breaks due to geological forces on rocks and adjoining plates that cause physical and chemical changes. A volcanic earthquake is when a volcano erupts and shakes the plates.
It is one of the world’s most active stratovolcanoes. It is located in Skamania County, Washington which is south of Seattle, Washington and it is 8,336 feet tall. These people died due to being exposed to the hot ash the volcano produced and inhaling it which asphyxiated
The Thera eruption was four times more powerful than the Krakatoa eruption of 1988 (Nardo 74). This then continued raining down ash, soot, and pumice until the volcanic chamber was void of magma. At this point, it then collapsed inwards creating monstrous tidal waves that are speculated to have been big enough to wash over the entire island in several feet of water. This is likely what gave the illusion of the sinking of Atlantis. This eruption was not just enough to kill tens of thousands of people; it was strong enough to reshape the land around it.
When P and S waves reached the surface of the Earth they get converted into long waves that travel along the surface, vibrating horizontally at right angle to the direction of the waves are called “Love Leaves” or “Rayleigh” waves as they also travel like a sea waves. The most violent shocks and subsequent destruction is caused by the L
Geography PT Guide to Aerial Volcano by Rebecca Chin (9) 213 Geography PT || Ebook Formation of the Volcano on Aerial Island Aerial Volcano is a stratovolcano. It is a conical volcano with steep sides formed by the accumulation of hardened lava, rock fragments, and volcanic ash. [ fig 1 ] Magma erupt through one or more volcanic vents, which are openings on the earth’s crust. They are built up when eruptions occur. With each eruption, erupted lava and ash adds another layer to the growing volcano.
According to National Geographic, these waves can reach heights up to 35 meters, and are mostly the aftereffects of earthquakes. “Most tsunamis, about 80 percent, happen within the Pacific Ocean’s “Ring of Fire,” a geologically active area where tectonic shifts make volcanoes and earthquakes common.” said one of the scientists working with National Geographic(7). Above the mantle of the earth, there is a layer made of tectonic plates, which fall into either the continental or oceanic category. They move and occasionally meet, which creates stress between the rocks. Due to this stress, the plates bend and break in order to release the elastic energy stored inside them.
The Axial Seamount is located next to the Juan de Fuca Ridge, but on the Juan de Fuca Plate. The Juan de Fuca Ridge is a mid-ocean ridge. The Axial Seamount was formed by the many earthquakes that kept happening in that area. In a three day span of all the earthquakes, the sea floor dropped over 2.4 m. They can also be created by divergent bonds by the sea spreading apart. Axial Seamounts are submarine volcanoes.
How do hot spots support plumes? Mantle plumes produce hot spots with heat. Gillian R. Foulger (2010), a professor of Geophysics at Durham University, said that the term ‘hot spot’ carries with it the presumptions that the volcanism in question is fed by an unusually hot, highly localized source. Some plumes rise beneath the centers of oceanic plates said Charles, Diane, and Lisa (2010). The mantle plumes start from the mantle which is above the core making the plume rise forming a tail and a head rising to where the lithosphere is located, the head of the plume when it touches the lithosphere forms a volcanic activity that is what we call a hot spot.
The Juan De Fuca plate being the denser oceanic plate is being subducted under the continental North American plate. Although the fault line is on the coast of the Northern American plate tectonic activity is also heavily present inland, evidence of this is the cascade volcanic arc formed by the tectonic movements at the fault
I decided not to climb up the seamount because I was still weary of the possibility of there being an eruption and I continued on my way. While walking from the Bear Seamount, I came across the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (38.7691,-30.96474). Commonly called MAR for short, the ridge is the longest mountain range in the world. It was formed by the tectonic plates diverging. Through this rift, magma rises from the mantle and erupts as lava to produce new crust material on the torn edges of the tectonic plates.
The volcano I pick was Mt Mauna Loa. This volcano has erupted about 32 times for the eruption of 1984. Mauna Loa is about 600,000- 1 million years old and hasn’t erupted as much as Kilauea and when it erupts it produces huge rivers of lava and threatens towns nearby. Mauna Loa is the second tallest volcano in the world. The elevation is 13,679 feet high.