In this experiment, the percent yield was 90%. This number implies that there was little error in this experiment. However, this result could have been caused by certain external factors. Firstly, because the NaHCO3 compound was not stored in a sealed container, therefore dust particles could have changed the results, and making the product impure. Also, there are uncertainties associated with the instruments used in this experiment. This, if the products were measured slightly more than should be, this could have affected the concentrations of the solutions, and therefore causing a larger
After adding the acetic acid and hydrobromic acid to the solution, and heating and recrystallizing the solution, the product triphenylmethyl bromide was created and had a mass of 0.103 g. The theoretical yield was calculated by determining the limiting reagent in the reaction. The triphenylmethanol was the limiting reagent in the reaction. The total amount of mass from the triphenylmethanol was converted to moles by using the molar mass of the triphenylmethanol. The amount of moles was then converted into grams to determine the theoretical yield, 0.125 g. The percent yield was then calculated by dividing the actual yield by the theoretical yield and multiplying the result by 100%. The percent yield was 82.4%. The melting point of the product was observed to be 139.5 °C. The theoretical yield of the product is 152 °C (University of South Carolina Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry). The melting point percent difference was calculated by subtracting the theoretical melting point from the actual melting point, dividing the result by the theoretical melting point, and multiplying the result by 100%. The melting point difference was 8.22%. Example calculations are shown
1. Suppose a household product label says it contains sodium hydrogen carbonate (sodium bicarbonate). Using your results from Data Table 1 as a guide, how would you test this material for the presence of sodium bicarbonate?
The diethyl ether solvent is nonpolar; therefore, based on the expression like dissolves like, other nonpolar molecules will dissolve in it. The 9-fluorenone is a nonpolar molecule; therefore, it will dissolve in the nonpolar diethyl ether. The benzoic acid has a polar carboxyl group; however, the ring is nonpolar. The nonpolar ring in the benzoic acid is what makes it soluble in the diethyl ether. The ethyl-4-aminobenzoate is similar to benzoic acid, in that it has a nonpolar ring and has polar attachments. The nonpolar ring is what makes it soluble in diethyl ether. Each compound is soluble in water because they
Within the current investigation, the effects of the surface area of Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) in combination with Hydrochloric acid (HCl) upon its rate of reaction. CaCO3, commonly referred to as limestone, is an organic substance and is, in a sense, the crystallised “carbonic salt” of the element, calcium2. In addition to being a salt, the pH level of Calcium Carbonate is 9.91, and it is therefore, a basic substance, due to the fact that it is comprised of a pH level higher than 7, which is neutral3.
Therefore, liquid-liquid and acid-base extraction techniques were successfully performed to separate the components of the Excedrin tablet. According to the TLC analysis results, the compounds (aspirin, acetaminophen, and caffeine) were successfully isolated from the analgesic (Excedrin tablet). In figure 1, the separation of the compound in the TLC analysis correlates with the TLC analysis in figure 2. Furthermore, Rf index calculations of the TLC analysis demonstrated that the compounds (aspirin, acetaminophen, and caffeine) were separated. The Rf calculations of aspirin in table 1 shows an Rf value of .491; however, in table 2 the Rf value of aspirin was calculated to be .784. This Rf value is the higher among the other compounds because the Rf values decreases from aspirin to caffeine; therefore, this suggests that the
In this lab there were five different stations. For the first station we had to determine an unknown mass and the percent difference. To find the unknown mass we set up the equation Fleft*dleft = Fright*dright. We then substituted in the values (26.05 N * 41cm = 34cm * x N) and solved for Fright to get (320.5g). To determine the percent difference we used the formula Abs[((Value 1 - Value 2) / average of 1 & 2) * 100], substituted the values (Abs[((320.5 - 315.8) / ((320.5 + 315.8) / 2)) * 100]) and solved to get (1.58%). For the second station we had to determine the distance required to balance the system and the percent difference. To find the unknown distance we set up the equation Fleft*dleft = Fright*dright. We then plugged in the values (11.35 N * x cm = 48cm *
Sulfuric acid was added to the distilled water, drop by drop until the solution had a pH of about 4.0.
Trial 1: 25.65mL NaOH x 0.100mol/1000mL = 2.57 x 10-3 mol NaOH = 2.57 x 10-3 mol HA = 2.57 x 10-3 mol H+. The equivalent mass is 0.356g Acid / 2.57 x 10-3 mol H+ = 139g/mol H+
(0.0035 moles of CaCl2) x (1 mole Ca(OH)2/ 1 mole of CaCl2) = 0.004 moles of Ca(OH)2
To calculate the concentration of ethanoic acid CH3COOH in vinegar using stoichiometric equations, ( Yamaha brand )
According to the Texas A&M International Univ Biology Lab Manual, acetone, otherwise known as C3H6O, is an organic solvent that has the capacity of damaging and stressing hydrophobic specimen, (ChemSpider). The beet cell, for instance, contains phospholipids, which contains hydrophobic specimen (specimen resistant to water)(Carroll, Melanie). Knowing all this before the experiment gave a sense of direction on which way to formulate a hypothesis. The hypothesis on this experiment was that out of the various concentrations of acetone that we used, (5%,15%,30%), the 30% acetone would cause the most stress/damage to the healthy beet tissue. To further explain how the concentration of acetone differs by parentage, I will explain how much g/l are contained with different percentages. The 5% contains 2.904g/l, the 10% contains 5.808g/l, the 20% contains 11.66g/l, the 30% contains 17.42g/l; we can see there is a positive relationship between percentage of concentration and g/l of acetone, (i.e. the higher the percentage, the more g/l is contained in solvent). The hypothesis states that the high concentration of acetone would be more effective and efficient in breaking down the phospholipids inside of the beet tissue. Up next was the null hypothesis for the experiment. It was predicted that if there is not of a concentration of the solvent we had chosen, (acetone) then there would
The acidity can then be calculated referring on the known concentration and volume of base; and the known volume of acid.
The experiment for this report is 5, 6, and 7. In experiment 5 there are given a Sodium Hydroxide which is 4.126 g when it is weighted and a KHP also with the NaOH there’s two other experiment that are used to find the titration of molarity in the three chemical balances. In exp. 6 and 7 there using the NaOH to find titration in an acid and vinegar by going through three trails to see how much sodium hydroxide is pick in it until it turns light pink, however if it turns dark pink there’s an error in the trail.
That caused a new initial reading of NaOH on the burette (see Table1 & 2). The drops were caused because the burette was not tightened enough at the bottom to avoid it from being hard to release the basic solution for titrating the acid. The volume of the acid used for each titration was 25ml. The volume of the solution was then calculated by subtracting the initial volume from the final volume. We then calculated the average volume at each temperature. It was calculated and found that the concentration of benzoic acid was higher at 30℃ (0.0308M) than at 20℃