“Phonological rules are part of communication through language, whether spoken or written, and knowing what they are and why they exist can help us better understand our world” (Smith 1995). There are two common types of phonological rules, these are universal (Assimilation) and non-universal (Dis-assimilation) rules. “Assimilation is a rule that makes two or more neighboring segments more similar by making the segments share some feature” (Jun, 1995). While, dissimilation is a rule that change feature values to make two phonemes in a string more dissimilar. “Deletion in English Language is the dropping of sound that takes place especially because morphemes are put close to each other and also because of their occurances in unstressed syllables or in rapid speech” (Ramelan,1977, p. 174)..
In the pursuit to find the differences between descriptivism and prescriptivism this paper will discuss what descriptivism is and what prescriptivism is. The first part of the paper will introduce both descriptivism and prescriptivism in detail. The author will go on to explore what descriptivism is and what attitude to writing and speaking it represents. This paper will discuss the various settings in which descriptivism and prescriptivism can be used in and which settings they should not be used in. The author found that people with a descriptive attitude will most likely be humble towards grammatical mistakes in the English language.
However, it is not her first language, and, indeed, sometimes she needs to support herself with English for certain expressions. In one of her papers, Oster asks, how one’s identity changes in the regard to the language one uses. She says: ‘Are we ‘someone else’ in another language, or is it that the social context in which we are speaking or the topic we are discussing makes us feel different in another language? To what extent may the difficulty lie, rather, in the untranslatability of the culture carried by the language, the untranslatability of the person herself?’ Sadako and Mr. Endo are technically using the same language but it is a little different for both of them. The possibility here is that the father stays silent, because he does not understand American culture, which is the culture of his
That is, adjuncts are -indpendent elements in the sentence from the governing verb. The main idea of the valency theory is distinction between complements and ajuncts. Generally there two points which are helpful to distinguish these elements. Obersving, the aspect of ajuncts, the following features can be mentioned as the basic: «(i) they occur relatively freely; (ii) they are not determined in their form by the governing verb» [Herbst 2004: xxiv] The second point (ii) can be proved, if the adjunct can be replaced by a «prepositional pharse, an adverb phrase or an adverbial clause» [Herbst 2004: xxiv]. Consider the following examples, provided by Prof. Dr. Thomas Herbst in his work «Valency theory and the Valency Dictionary of English.
The Lexical Integrity Hypothesis as stated by Booji (2005) and Spencer (2005) is outlined as follows: Syntax cannot manipulate internal structure of words. Syntax cannot enter into the internal structure of words. Phrasal compounds pose a large problem for the Lexical Integrity Hypothesis because phrasal compounds entail syntactic phrases being incorporated into a compound, which itself arguably acts like a linguistic unit. The claim that the phrasal component of phrasal compounds have to be set phrases, if true, would allow phrasal compounds to be reconciled with the Lexical Integrity Hypothesis. This is because if true, the set phrases could then be considered to be lexical entries and would not have to be considered under the rules of syntax.
At the beginning, the author puts emphasis on how native speakers of a language decide if a text is either a combination of unrelated sentences or a whole unified sentences based on hearing or reading it by the native speakers. The book ‘Cohesion in English’ show the differences that identify the two aspects of the text, as a unified whole, and collection of unrelated sentences. It is informed that there are empirical factors which are text characteristics, they should be found in order to save as basis in the text. In a grammatical unit, consistency is formed by a sentence supported by a clause to a group of clauses. A text is highly regarded as an exclusive semantic unit in the meaning related to a sentence or clause, however, it does not
German participle formation through affixation is generally predictable but not foreseeable by the surface structure of the verb. For monomorphemic verbs, a German participle is formed by attaching the participle marker ge- and a participle suffix to the verb stem. Depending on the verb, the participle suffix can either be -t (e.g. saugen - gesaugt ‘vacuum – vacuumed’) or -en (e.g. geben - gegeben ‘to give-gave’).
English phrasal verbs consist of a verb paired with a particle that is homophonous with an English preposition (Jackendoff, 2010, p. 228). The verb and its particle are written as separate words in the orthography, and the phrasal verb shares similarities, such as transitivity and irregularity, with the single-word verb which the ‘verb’ part of the phrasal verb resembles and from which it presumably originates. The particle used in the phrasal verb is not a preposition, although it resembles one in appearance. Instead, it is semantically fused to the verb, and the meaning of the verb with its particle may be significantly different from the verb when it does not have a particle attached to it. The particle may be considered adverbial by some
Myers-Scotton (1993), in this respect, has proposed the Markedness Model and suggested that code-switching is often operated for in a social situation for intervention purpose, code-switching, functionally speaking, can be measured as a social existence. Stanlaw(1987) refers a substantial purpose for the use of loanwords in English is “that they provide linguistic tools that individuals can use in personal and highly creative ways." Takashi (1997) disagreed Stanlaw and postulated that it seems “inadequate to attribute the high number of English elements which do not fill lexical gaps to the loanword's modern connotation alone”. Samsuri (1983: 9) in his book, Analisa Bahasa, asserts that language is a tool that is used to express people's thoughts and feelings, their will and their behaviors; a tool that is used to influence and to be influenced, and language is a first base and the root for human society. Many people often use the English language in their conversation.
Lorincz and Gorden(2012), in a study analyze the traditional method of teaching preposition and its alternative approach. In traditional methods, preposition is thought explicitly. The apprquiroach claim that prepositions are learned individually and context by context and they are non- predictable. The author suggests alternative approaches: the collocation approach and the prototype approach. The former emphasizes the words that come before and after the preposition , but prototypical approach emphasizes on the words that are nearly similar to the preposition semantically.