(PE) Sodium benzoate has the antimicrobial properties and is used in the oral formulation as preservative. Sodium citrate dihydrate act as alkalizing agent, buffering agent, complexing agent and emulsifying agent. Buffering agent controls and maintains the pH of the formulation to avoid degradation of drug during manufacturing, reconstitution and storage. (5) Next, citric acid monohydrate also acts as buffering agent and antioxidant. Antioxidant inhibit or delay the oxidation process of the ingredients in the formulation.
Acid-Base Extraction and The Extraction of Caffeine from Tea Bags and Purification by Sublimation. Summary: The isolation of organic compounds in a solution can be performed due to the difference in solubility in different liquids. The extraction of the benzoic acid ,3-nitroaniline and 9-flourene mixtures by adding different amounts of solvents and extracting the acidic, basic and the organic solvents the purity of the samples were then determined by comparing them to the literature value of the melting point. The percent recovery for the benzoic acid was 81.1%, the 3-nitroaniline was 52.9% and the organic extract was 158.8% this was cause by a large number of impurities that had occurred whilst conducting the experiment. The benzoic acid was found in the acidic extract while the 3-nitroaniline was found in the basic extract and the organic extracted contained the 9-flourene, this was determined by the comparison of the melting point range to the actual value.
Experiment 4: Formal Report Preparation and Recrystallisation of Aspirin Aim of the experiment: In this experiment, a pure sample of aspirin is to be obtained through esterification to synthesise the sample, then purify the sample by recrystallisation. Lastly, determine the melting point of the sample to characterise the aspirin. Introduction: Background Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is an aromatic compound that contains an ester- functional group and a carboxylic acid- functional group. Aspirin is commonly used as a pain reliever (analgesic), an anti-inflammatory, an anti-coagulant (prevent platelet aggregation) and an antipyretic (to reduce fever) pill. It helps to prevent strokes, heart attacks and blood clot formation.
• Injection volume: 20μl • Injection concentration: 1mg /ml • Detection wavelength: 280nm 2.3.6-Isolation and purification of Flavonoids (Genistien, Rutin, Quercetin) by: 22.214.171.124- Preparative TLC plate: Isolation and purification of genistein,rutin, quercetin were carried out by preparative TLC. On a glass plates (20 cm x20 cm) a slurry of 60 gm of silica gel GF 254 suspended in 120 ml of distilled water was applied in 0.75 mm thickness manually by using Jobling laboratory division plate coater. The freshly coated plates were left until the transparency of the layer disappears. After 10 minutes, the plates heated for 1 hour at 110ºC. The completely dried and activated plates are kept in a dry place for use.
Turel and Patil (1996)  have established a rapid and selective method for the extraction of molybdenum with malachite green into nitrobenzene. The influence of solvent extraction variables on molybdenum extraction such as effect of pH, time of equilibration, solvents, effect of various anions and cations have been studied. On the basis of substoichiometric extraction method the constituent ratio of the metal-organic complexes was found as 1:1. The slope ratio method was also in agreement with the
The dissolved solution is sent for further tests. Examination of GSR Chemical Tests 1. Paraffin test- hands are coated with paraffin. After cooling of paraffin, the cast is removed and treated with diphenylamine solution. The presence of blue flecks indicated the presence of nitrites and nitrates.
Tests for alkaloids a. Morquies test: For detecting the alkaloids 2-3 gms of the sample was ground with sufficient chloroform to make slurry. Ammonical chloroform was added and the mixture was stirred for one minute. Extraction of alkaloids from choloroform was accomplished by shaking the solution with 0.5 ml of 2 N-H2SO4 and separation of the acid layer by means of a dropper. A few drops of drug solution were tested with the following alkaloidal reagents A small quantity of the drug solution was placed in a glass plate and allowed to evaporate to dryness. A drop of water and Morquies reagent (HgCl2 + KCN) was added and the colour was observed.
The solution was stirred vigoursly for ½ h and allowed to stand for 1 h. The paste of bisulphite compound was filtered and washed with little ethanol and finally with little ether. The bisulphite compound was decomposed by warming in round bottom flask on a water bath with dilute H2SO4. The mixture was allowed to cool and then the thymolaldehyde was extracted with ether (3x30mL). Removal of ether gave pure thymoladehyde
Solid dispersions formulated to improve solubility & dissolution rate of poorly soluble drug Clopidogrel Bisulfate. Physical mixtures & solid dispersions of clopidogrel bisulfate were prepared with carboxymethylcellulose sodium and xanthan gum in the weight ratios of 1:1,1:3 and 1:5 using kneading method. The prepared solid dispersions were characterized by solubility determination, drug content, in vitro dissolution and accelerated stability studies. The results revealed that solid dispersions showned improvement in solubility and dissolution characteristics than the physical mixtures and pure drug. The reasons for increase in solubility and dissolution rate is decrease in particle size, increased surface area, amorphous state of the drug
The bacterial strains like Corynebacterium Sp (MTCC 8730), B. licheniformis (MTCC 429), M. luteus (ATCC 49732), Corynebecteriurm acnes (MTCC1951), were used based on their importance in odour formation characteristics on human axilla. METHODS Preparation of Herbal Extracts and application The methanol extract of the powder was obtained. 10000 mg of powder was soaked in 100 mL of methanol separately for 24 h to obtain 10% concentrated solution; the active substances were dissolved in methanol. The extract was filtered and used for the further processes. The methanol extracts of Terminalia chebula were applied to the cotton fabric by dipping in the bath with material-to-liquor ratio of 1:10 and then pad-dried at room temperature .