3.2. SOCIOECONOMIC-RELATED INEQUALITY AND INEQUITY IN HEALTH AND HEALTH CARE 3.2.1. Defining inequality and inequity in health and health care utilization 220.127.116.11. Terms inequality, inequity and disparity In the health equity literature, the terms “inequality”, “inequity” and “disparity” are used interchangeably; however, as dictionary definitions, these are distinguishable. In the Cambridge Dictionary, these are defined as follows: • Inequality – the unfair situation in society when some people have more opportunities, money, etc.
The author also states and concludes that measures must be taken to eliminate racial disparities in health. Racial disparities, the racial differences in discrimination, is an indicator of health status of a person. Large racial disparities can cause a decline in health in one type of racial group for example Blacks have an elevated death rate for 8 of the 10 leading causes of death. The mortality rate and infant mortality rate for Blacks is higher than for Whites and this is because there isn’t equality in society. There are many reasons for the large difference in health between Blacks and Whites, one of the reasons is the limit of housing options for Blacks in the United States.
Today, health systems in both high-income and low-middle income countries play more significant role in improving as well as maintaining community health (WHO, 2007). Nevertheless, the efforts to develop well-functioning and highly integrated health systems are not easy since the most countries; especially developing countries have to deal with abundant challenges in public health. For instance, inequalities in the access to health care still exist in many countries due to various obstacles such as the inadequacies of the health resources and the discrepancy between the rich and the poor (Barten et al., 2007). To address those challenges, the health system must be reformed to improve the health coverage for all people as well as to conduct
Health inequalities are a result of unequal exposure to risk factors associated with socio-economic inequalities, such as social, economic and environmental conditions (Thomson, Bambra, McNamara, Huijts, & Todd, 2016). These inequalities in health, between people belonging to different socio-economic groups, were firstly recognized in the Nineteenth century, when public health figures in different European countries dedicated their studies to these issues (Mackenbach, 2006). Villermé (1782-1863), conducted a study in Paris, and showed districts with lower socio-economic statuses had higher mortality rates compared to neighborhoods with a higher socio-economic status, and came to the conclusion that life and death are related to social circumstances more than to biological phenomena (Mackenbach, 2006). Additionally, Virchow (1821-1902) stated: “medicine is a social science, and politics nothing but medicine at a larger scale” (Mackenbach, 2006, p. 4). In order to understand health inequalities and the social determinants of health, the “Rainbow Model” can be used, which shows the layers of influence on health (Figure 2); this is a conceptual model designed by Dehlgren and Whitehead,
Woman should be act more femininity such as passive, gentle and compassionate. In fact, the stereotypes of gender affect the health status of men and women in the society. According to the statistics, it shows the death rate and morbidity rate of men and women, men have a higher mortality rate and women have a higher morbidity rate (Royal College of General Practitioners et al., 1995, p.25) (HealthyHK, Department of health, 2012, p.1). The gender pattern of mortality and morbidity is affected by different aspect, and they can explain by the gender stereotypes. Apart from
Health inequality can be characterized as the distinctions in health status or in the circulation of health determinants between two or more diverse populace bunches. It is the term utilized as a part of various nations to allude to those occurrences whereby the health of two demographic gatherings (not inexorably ethnic or racial gatherings) varies regardless of near access to health care administrations. Such illustrations incorporate higher rates of morbidity and mortality for those in lower socio-economic gatherings than those in higher, and the improved probability of those from ethnic minorities being determined to have a psychological wellness issue. Health imbalances are frequently seen along a social inclination. This implies the more ideal your social conditions, for example, wage or training, the better your shot at getting a charge out of good health and a more extended life.
In relation to nursing, for example, process indicators, such as vacancy rates, job turnover or wastage, use of temporary staff, application rates for training positions, and outcome indicators (e.g., mortality rates, cross infection, and patient accidents) may all point to a staffing shortage.14 There are a number of indicators that can be used to determine whether there is a health worker shortage in a country. "Health worker availability" refers to the idea that workers are trained and employed as health workers to provide services to advance the public 's health (O’Brien & Gostin). Shortages encompasses three concepts: first, inadequacies in the health workforce due to a failure to train an adequate number of health workers; second, a lack of health workers who, despite being trained, are ready and willing to serve in the health system;15and third, a lack of employment opportunities for health
It is extremely important that health care professionals practice virtue. Going beyond ones duties could greatly benefit the patient also making the health care provider the patient advocate. It’s important for physicians and other medical personnel to understand their duties in their profession. When they go to extreme measures to ensure the health of a patient is when this obligation is proven. As a patient you may be in a vulnerable state or may lack a clear judgment of your health.
The study concluded that the LGBT cultural competency deficiency and the existence of health disparities will remain pervasive unless all practitioners are trained. LGBT patient do experience substandard care, biases, health access barriers and poor quality competency when seeking healthcare. The above barriers and deficiencies mix to produce inefficient, inequitable, unsustainable and infeasible healthcare environments and conditions that exacerbate the differences in health and increased costs to patients, physicians and healthcare system. The purpose of the study is to explore through review and analysis of literature and policies that are relevant to the problems surrounding the LGBT cultural competency in
1.1 Background to the study Information processing, its storage and retrieval is very critical to functioning and performance of any organizational decision making. This is more crucial in the health sector where accuracy and timeliness of patients records is essential to enhance effectiveness and efficiency in diagnosis, treatment and saving lives. Patients’ record is an essential document that compiles facts about a patient’s life and health. This captures data on past and present illnesses and treatment written by health care professionals caring for the patient (WHO, 2006). Knowledge of the file, ability to get it on time, and appropriateness of patients medical records at the