Racial disparities, the racial differences in discrimination, is an indicator of health status of a person. Large racial disparities can cause a decline in health in one type of racial group for example Blacks have an elevated death rate for 8 of the 10 leading causes of death. The mortality rate and infant mortality rate for Blacks is higher than for Whites and this is because there isn’t equality in society. There are many reasons for the large difference in health between Blacks and Whites, one of the reasons is the limit of housing options
Kaiser Family Foundation (2012), health and health care despairs refer to differences in the health and health care between population groups. The health disparity generally refers to a higher burden of illness, injury, disability, or mortality experienced by one population group relative to another. A health care disparity typically refers to the differences between groups in health coverage, access to care, and quality of care. While disparities are commonly viewed through the lens of race and ethnicity, they occur across many dimensions, including socioeconomic status, age, location, gender, disability status, and sexual orientation (HKFF,
The lecture, led by Dr. Christian Dimaano, discussed a variety of health disparities and then went into an in depth look at Henrietta Lacks, and the use of her cells in scientific research. He described health disparities as the differences of health problems between races, lifestyles, and mental processes. This was a very interesting topic for me, as a nursing major, I hadn’t really thought about health disparities before, so it was interesting to think about all of the potentially higher health risks that can occur simply because a patients race, or mental state. He also discussed the social determinants of heath and how things like your physical environment, economic stability, social community, and education can all influence your health. Dr. Dimaano also talked about how social determinants of health are health problems that you had no choice in, they are developed by factors such as sex, age, genes, medical care, and individual behaviors such as work and home life.
Of the fifty eight studies conducted, over 700 recommendations have been made, and only a handful have been implemented; this is a very good example of how the federal government has breached their fundamental and moral obligations to protect all women without discrimination (Legal Strategy Coalition on Violence Against Indigenous Women 2015). In a discussion held at the University of Toronto, Pam Palmater (2015), an aboriginal lawyer, said that “the days of saying the federal government should save [aboriginal peoples] are long over. All of it should not be up to the state, but it starts at the top with accountability.” While Harper has agreed to keep raising awareness, he has not committed to a national inquiry; he said “it [is not] high on our radar, to be honest” (Fitzgerald 2015). It is comments such as this that deter the general public from caring about this dire issue; if the head of state does not acknowledge that this is a pressing issue, it is understandable to see why the rest of the country does not understand the severity and scope of the issue.
Health disparities are inequitable and are directly related to the historical and current unequal distribution of social, political, economic, and environmental resources (CDC). 2. Which racial/ethnic groups are more likely to be affected by health disparities? Why?
According to Baldwin (2003) health care disparities are the differences in health and health care between population groups including race, socioeconomic status, age, location, gender, disability, and sexual orientation. Disparities limits the improvements of quality health care which could result in unnecessary health care expenses. Factors that are contributing to disparities within today’s society are lack of access to quality health care and the number of individuals who are uninsured. As the population continue to grow and become more diverse health care disparities will continue to increase.
Heath and Low Socioeconomic Status Class When examining the health status of Canadians, one may not recognize the flaws of inequality. When looked into further is it evident that not all Canadians are on equal playing fields when it comes to access of health. The concept of social determinant of health, taps into the idea that there are social barriers and obstacle in our society that present challenges for certain social groups and their access to health care. One group of Canadians who experience the effects of inequality in our health care system, are those individuals living in lower socioeconomic status.
Disadvantage and marginalisation of indigenous Australian 's began with the dispossession of land, displacement of their people, and separation of families. Indigenous Australian 's have difficulty in gaining access, to the same degree, to what white Australian 's have ready access such as housing, employment and general services. Indigenous Australian 's are one of the most disadvantaged groups in this country in social and economic areas such as employment, housing, income, and health. The burden of poor health among aborigines is of particular concern. The health disadvantage of indigenous people begins in infancy and continues throughout their life.
Some areas in the United States face higher rates of crime and drug abuse. This contributes to the prevalence of health disparities within different communities. In order to eliminate or decrease the distinct difference between areas that are at higher health risks than others one must begin to understand why they exist. Some areas have higher drug abuse rates than others due to factors such as poor education, poverty, unemployment rates, and lack of community involvement. These things play a major role in whether or not a young adult is going to start the use of drugs or drinking alcohol.
Canadians take pride in their health care system; however, most Canadians are unaware of the disparities that exist for transgender persons within health care. Being ridiculed, denied care, or treated unjustly because of a self-identification as transgender goes against the core values of the nursing profession (Canadian Nurses Association, 2009); despite this, ten percent of transgender participants in the Ontario Trans PULSE survey reported that they had experienced these demonstrations of prejudice when accessing emergency room services. This statistic may be lower than the reality due to transgender persons frequently avoiding the health care system (Bauer & Scheim, 2015). According to the Canadian Nurses Association (CNA) Code of Ethics (2009) nursing staff are expected to provide, “safe, compassionate, competent, and ethical care” (p. 3); however, due to lack of policies and lack of education nursing staff and physicians are detrimentally adding to the stressors of transgender life.
Health Care Disparities Health care disparities are unfortunate and being culturally competent is an essential step toward eliminating these inequalities. In this discussion, I will review what disparities are associated with the Appalachian culture and how they affect health status, employment, and education. I will also identify two nursing interventions that could be taken to help decrease the affect that health disparities have on the Appalachians and review what the biggest challenge would be when implementing the interventions. There are about 27 million people that live in the area defined as the Appalachian region, which spans 13 states.
Health Care in the US is arguably available to all who seek it but not everybody has had the same experience and treatment when walking through the doors of a healthcare facility. In many cases, people are discriminated against due to their gender, race/ethnicity, age, and income and are often provided with minimal service. Differences between groups in health coverage, access to care, and quality of care is majorly affected through these disparities. Income is a major factor and can cause groups of people to experience higher burden of illness, injury, disability, or mortality relative to another group.
Canada enjoys the benefits of a “universal” insurance plan funded by the federal government. The idea of having a publicly administered, accessible hospital and medical services with comprehensive coverage, universality and portability has its own complex history, more so, than the many challenges in trying to accommodate the responsibility of a shared-cost agreement between federal and provincial governments. (Tiedemann, 2008) Canada’s health care system has gone through many reforms, always with the intent to deliver the most adequate health care to Canadians. The British North American Act, Hospital Insurance and Diagnostic Services Act, Saskatchewan’s Medical Care Act, and the Canada Health Act are four Acts that have played an important
Health inequalities are a result of unequal exposure to risk factors associated with socio-economic inequalities, such as social, economic and environmental conditions (Thomson, Bambra, McNamara, Huijts, & Todd, 2016). These inequalities in health, between people belonging to different socio-economic groups, were firstly recognized in the Nineteenth century, when public health figures in different European countries dedicated their studies to these issues (Mackenbach, 2006). Villermé (1782-1863), conducted a study in Paris, and showed districts with lower socio-economic statuses had higher mortality rates compared to neighborhoods with a higher socio-economic status, and came to the conclusion that life and death are related to social circumstances
Health inequalities are preventable and unjust differences in health status experienced by certain population groups. People in lower socio-economic groups are more likely to experience chronic ill-health and die earlier than those who are more advantaged. Health inequalities are not only apparent between people of different socio-economic groups – they exist between different genders and different ethnic groups (“Health inequalities,” n.d.). The situation in which people are born, grow, develop, work and age are affected by social, economic, environmental and most importantly political factors.