These factors are known as the Social Determinants of health. “The social determinants of health are the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age, including the health system” (WHO). Dalgren & Whitehead (1991) image of the social determinants of health aims to show the relationship between the person, their environment and their health. The modifiable factors, people’s age, gender and race lie in the centre surrounded by non modifiable factors like profession, housing, education and public policy. There is a direct relationship between people’s environment and their health, e.g.
The decisions made encompasses all available health care options like visiting a public or private and modern or traditional health facility, self-medication and use of home remedies or not to utilize the available health services etc. Planning for health care services provision depends on the health needs and HSB of the population. Determining the health care seeking behavior is essential to provide need based health care services to the population. The desired HSB has been related to visiting official channels in a formally recognized health care system. Healthcare-seeking behavior is influenced by availability, quality and price of services as well as to social group, health views, residences and personal features of the users.
The primary health care team consist of GP’s, Public Health Nurses, Community Nurses, Specialised Nurses, Occupational Therapist, Physiotherapist and many other multidisciplinary teams. Nursing is one of the keys to primary care. Perhaps more than any other social, health or medical workers, nurses cross the boundaries between public, voluntary and private health and social care sectors. Primary health care nurses work in a range of settings, each sharing the characteristic that they are a part of the first level of contact with the health system. The main employment settings of nurses who work in primary care are Community based residential units, Hospice care, Public Health Nurse, Community Registered General Nurses and Practice nurses.
Health is determined by several factors, some of these including genetic inheritance, personal behaviors, access to quality healthcare, and our general external environment. In a growing variety of research, we have documented associations between social and cultural factors and health. Many Anthropologist measure these factors using two forms of analysis. Biocultural and cross-cultural. The biocultural approach: defined as, “Perspective that considers the social, ecological, and biological aspects of health and how they interact within and across populations” (Wiley & Allen p. 9).
It shows not only the physical aspect of a resident but as well psychological, social aspects, economics and life- style factors (ANA 2015). Every resident in a nursing home setting should be provided with a Care Plan within 48hrs of a resident’s admission. A care plan is often discussed, agreed and drawn up with the
Thus, epidemiology has a core role in evaluating the effectiveness of measures that prevent and treat diseases and health problems among different communities (21, 22). Examples of such work include the study of Reath and Carey (28) which evaluate the early detection of breast and cervical cancer in indigenous community. Also, the study of Exner, Dries (29) which focuses on the difference in response to drug treatment among black and white communities with heart failure give a good example of using community concept to evaluate treatments. Epidemiology largely deals with descriptions and comparisons of group of people that vary widely in their genetic- make up, behaviors and environments (22). For example, McBean, Li (30) conducted multi- ethnic epidemiological study to determine the differences in diabetes prevalence, incidence and mortality among the elderly of four racial/ethnic groups: whites, blacks, Hispanics and Asians, where Feskanich, Ziegler (31) conducted their study to examine and compare the gender- based association between lung cancer risk and fruits and vegetables consumption.
Models of nursing care help support the delivery of high quality care. Models of care provide us with a theory about people, their environment, their health and the role of nurses in their care. Models of care provide guidance for planning and delivering care. These nursing care models aid the development of principles and philosophies at ward level or in a hospital setting. In the nursing profession there are numerous models of nursing care.
MY ROLE IN THE MULTI-PROFESSIONAL TEAM. Healthcare is not simply about curing patients of illness and disease, but about integrating multiple aspects of care to bring about health in individuals and communities. This task explores the role of the multi-professional team in comprehensive healthcare at primary, secondary and tertiary levels. The roles of several multi-professional team members, including those of nurses, psychologists and my role as a future integrated health professional, are discussed with reference to competence. My thoughts and feelings around these roles are reflected, especially with regard to experiences from recent visits to several healthcare facilities.
10.2 Implementations of Activities Related to the Concept Community health nurse provide health care through community diagnosis and investigation of major health and environmental problems, health surveillance and monitoring and evaluation of community and population health status for the purpose of preventing disease, promoting, protecting and maintaining health in order to create conditions in which people can be healthy. Community health nursing comprises the
This is done in order to design distinct systems for producing, validating, safeguarding, and integrating all data that is health-related (HealthIT.gov, 2015). The goal for introducing healthcare informatics in hospitals is to improve and maximize the quality of services delivered to patients. It operates in a manner where it consolidates all the resources, techniques, and systems to make optimum use of the wealth of medical know-how, advances in technology, and the available drugs breakthroughs. It is applied broadly in many health-related areas like in the field of dentistry, public health, nursing, and pharmacy as well as medical research clinical care. Health informatics involves the application dedicated software, hardware gadgets and computer networks with the potential to collect, evaluate, and transfer medical information.