Health Information System Literature Review

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3.1 Introduction
The following section discusses various studies that have dealt with study of health management information system (HMIS) and factors affects’ information utilization.
Health information system has an organized set of interrelating components that can be grouped under two entities: the information process, and the health information system management structure. Through the information process, raw data (inputs) are transformed into information in a usable form for management decision-making (outputs). The information process can be broken down into sub components: (i) data collection, (ii) data transmission, (iii) data processing, (iv) data analysis and (v) presentation of data and information
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At the level of the district, health information enables health planners and managers to take decisions regarding the effective functioning of health facilities and of the health system as a whole. At higher levels, health information is needed for strategic policy-making and resource allocation. Although the data requirements at every level of the health system are different. The quantity and detail of data needed is generally greater at lower levels of the system, where decisions on the care of individuals are made, than at higher levels where broader policy-making takes place(42). health information system address include: (42)
 health determinants (socioeconomic, environmental behavioral and genetic factors) and the contextual and legal environments within which the health system operates;
 inputs to the health system and related processes including policy and organization, health infrastructure, facilities and equipment, costs, human and financial resources and health information
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Karimi, et al on District Health Information System Assessment : A Case Study in Iran the findings shows According to WHO criteria, the average score of DHIS assessment was 35.75 percent. The most score of DHIS criteria compliance with WHO, was related to data gathering criteria (70 percent) and the least score was related to utilization of information for decision making (10 percent). In addition , DHIS training infrastructures is undesirable, first level data production and gathering is inefficient, personnel training has been neglected in primary health care, there is no computerized report in urban and rural health facilities, and namely, there is not enough information for decision making in this level. According to findings, utilization of information in decision-making, information interpretation and information presentation criteria compliance with WHO had the most undesirability. Authors recommended that urban and rural health facilities managers should participate in proper training courses of information interpretation and utilization of information in decision
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