The focus on health reform is constantly changing due to societal needs – in terms of general health, political context and financial hardships. Over the past decades, there have been various health reform efforts, each one improving access to health care. As reported by Hoffman (2009), most efforts have failed either because of “the plan’s complexity, ideological differences, weakened Presidency or decentralization of Congressional Power.” The reasons for failure demonstrate the political weight carried on by reform itself. According to Hoffman (2009), we’ve witnessed the reform process from Truman’s Fair Deal agenda up until the market-oriented health care in the 90’s. During World War II, many exchanged services for the fringe benefit of health insurance.
People are living longer which means the population is getting older. Additionally the number of people in the world are growing. In Africa there is not only a shortage of health workers but also a greater burden of disease and scarce resources. This creates a vicious cycle of health decline, as inevitably, the disease burden grows when there are so few human and other resources available to respond to the existing health problems. It is the need to treat HIV/AIDS that particularly exacerbates the workforce shortage in Africa.47 It has been projected that, in the period 2006–2016, there could be a threefold increase in the number of patients per physician for the delivery of HIV services in Africa and that each physician would need to see 26,000 patients per year (O’Brien & Gostin).
Human Resource crisis: B. Health Service Delivery Priority Interventions 1. Basic Health Care Package (BHCP) 2. Public Health Priority Interventions • Child health and Nutrition: • Integrated Reproductive Health: • HIV/AIDS, TB and STIs • Malaria • Epidemics & Public Health Surveillance and Control: • Environmental health and food safety: C.
This is the coordination of health activities with other sectors; such sectors include Education, Finance, Agriculture, Information etc. There should be a working relationship these bodies and the health ministry. ADVANTAGES -Overall human development It ensures economic development It ensures affordability INTEGRATON OF HEALTH SERVICES This is defined as coordination of various primary health care components into a whole gramme and made available at all times including referrals. ADVANTAGES It ensures efficient use of all resources and removes areas of wastage, [it ensures sustainability of programme It ensures bye pass phenomenon •It reduces opportunity cost -It grantees clients ' confidentiality EQUITY The health care resources available in a given community should not be in the handle of a few. And resources should be accessible and affordable to all.
Conclusion This study explores the extent to which HMIS can improve PHC accountability arrangements necessary for improving the health. Key Words: Health, Management, Information system, Healthcare. 1.Introduction The health system in developing countries has changed drastically in the last few years from a centralized system with hierarchical reporting to a decentralized system. Health systems in a centralized system only used to focus on morbidity and mortality reporting from individual health units to the district and national level (Richardson E. et al. 2013; Gladwin et al., 2003).
Quite frequently, parents reject this. Why do many of them do this? For one, it is a big responsibility. Secondly, buying a pet comes with an immense price tag. Buying a pet is expense enough, but during the first year, costs increased dramatically due to crucial vaccines, and procedures.
The situation as in developing countries like India is quite more serious than in developed countries the patient has to bear the total cost of medicine by themself for almost all medicines. At least 80% of the population has to indulge “out of pocket” expenditure in the absence of national wide health insurance coverage. According to World Health Organization (W.H.O.) one-third of the world's population, mainly in low-and middle-income countries like India continues to lack regular access to essential drugs. In the poorest parts of Africa and Asia, this price rises to over 50percent.
Nevertheless, teenage pregnancy is significant because of its global economic, social and health consequences that has eventually affected wide-reaching populations. Its continuous prevalence and impacts has brought global attention and concern upon it, because its consequences affects the global maternal and infant mortality rates. Estimations of 70,000 adolescent girls die each year in developing countries from causes related to pregnancy and childbirth (WHO, 2007). The tragedy does not end with the teenage mother but poses serious health risks to the infant’s life long process and are felt far beyond the walls of family homes, constructing a world vulnerable to poverty life. Once a teenage girl is pregnant, a lot of changes occur radically.
The Niger Delta area of Nigeria has been in turmoil for a long time due to poverty and underdevelopment precipitated by corruption, greed and rent seeking behaviour. The management of Nigeria’s health care system by the government has increased poverty accelerating factors in the region. In recent times, health workers especially medical doctors have frequently embarked on strike and protests as a strategy for compelling the government to improve the health care system. During periods of strikes and protests patients are left without medical attention. Since majority of the people are poor, they find it impossible to afford medical care in private hospitals.
2.5 National Policy Review Mechanisms The improvement of Occupational Safety and Health is one of the cornerstones of the Labour and Manpower Policy announced by the Government of Pakistan in 2002. The policy envisages establishment of a Tripartite National Safety and Health Council . This Council will have representation from the workers, employers and the government agencies, besides the experts in the field of Occupational Safety and Health. The Council will have following major functions and areas of interest: • To formulate a comprehensive national policy on occupational safety and health. • To lay down principles and standards for specific economic activities and improvement of the existing laws and systems • To strengthen the monitoring system of the Ministry of Labour to ensure effective implementation of the occupational safety and health laws.