About eighty percents of Malaysian that are diagnosed with colorectal cancer are above fifty years old and the aging trend of the Malaysians may add to the prevalence. According to Rashid, Aziz, Ahmad, Shah & Sagap, (2009), majority of the patients in Malaysia manifested colorectal cancer in a late stage with poor prognosis, which indeed generates health burden due to poor quality of life and incur high medical
Meanwhile in Europe, second pandemic of plaque occur which lead to 30% of death of the total population and known as Black Death (WHO,2000). Plaque epidemic occur mostly in India, Peru, Africa, Vietnam and Asia with exception of Australia. The mortality rate for treated bubonic is 1-15% and 40% for septicemic .However, if it was untreated the mortality rate is 50% for bubonic and 100% for septimic as well as pneumonic and thus result in death within 24 hours (David et al., 2008). According to WHO (2000), 80613 cases and 6587 deaths were recorded based upon reports of plaque from 38 countries (1954-1997). The highest number of cases is 6004 in 1967 whereas the lowest number of cases occurs in 1981 which is 200.However, based on this experiment; the infection is based upon the number of black beads found.
Screening method and public awareness are lacking. Due to this, disease is diagnosed at an advanced stage accompanied by metastasis in patients, and it leads to a poor prognosis. 50% is five-year survival rate of this disease (3,16). Squamous cell carcinoma being the most prevalent type in the oral cancer which is the common cancer throughout the world. Approximately there are 260000 new cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma and 124000 deaths worldwide annually
NURSING DILEMMA : TRUTH-TELLING IN TERMINAL CARE PATIENT INTRODUCTION: Cancer is one of the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in Singapore. In fact, top 5 leading cause of cancers breast cancer 63.4%, colorectal 38.7%, lung 33.8%, prostate 28.1% and liver cancer 16.6%. Based on statistics, there is an increasing number of death related to cancer each year. Nowadays, people tend to be more cautious about cancer and involve in self awareness program. Patients understanding about cancer means "death" and most likely need to hide the diagnoses to them.. "It 's very unpleasant to tell the patient that they have a terminal illness.
Ischemic stroke is more common type of stroke, occurs around 80% of all strokes (Feigin et al., 2003), of which 60% are involved with large-artery ischemia. Following ischemia there is a local reduction in oxygen supply or nutrients, results in failure of energy production such as adenine triphosphate (ATP). This harmfully influences the tissue cell survival, and leads to cellular damage and death. The amount of cellular injury depends upon extend of illness, severity, and area involved (Deb P,
A. Gender Gender is closely related to the occurrence of TB Lungs. According to Ismen MD (2000) in Chandra Wibowo et al (2004) or in the developed countries must be obtained a man's risk of contracting the contact more than in women. Based on data Riskesdas TB Lung in 2013, many Indonesian attack in the male as much as 52.7 percent. Multiple regression analysis result logistic shows that the gender significantly exceed OATS in patients with TB use Lung (p=0.000).
Polluted water and poor sanitation claim the lives of about 9,000 people per year in Vietnam, according to the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. Over 100,000 new cases of cancer are reported, chiefly by using contaminated water. Scientific studies have shown that when using arsenic-contaminated drinking water, people prone to contract cancer, in particular, skin cancer. Arsenic causes circulatory system poisoned when drinking water source with the arsenic level of 0.1 mg/l. Therefore, it is necessary to treat arsenic water in daily activities.
World health organization reported that 14.8% of TB patients have HIV co-infection, and as many as 50-80% have HIV co-infection in parts of sub-Saharan Africa(5) The incidence of TB associated with HIV is believed to have peaked at 1.39 million in 2005 and is now decreasing(6). However, globally, TB remains the most common cause of death among patients with AIDS, killing 1 of 3 patients (7). After decades of steady decline, the number of TB cases in the United States increased in the mid-1980s. (8) However, analysis of trends focused on the period 2008−2013 suggests that globally, the proportion of new cases with MDR-TB was 3.5% in 2013
1.3 LITERATURE REVIEW In Malaysia, heart disease is the major factor of mortality that can cause a sudden death to patient, based on World Heart Organization coronary heart disease take a 98.9 life per 100,000 in Malaysia in 2012 (Ang & Chan, 2016). As we can see this is a big number of death as Malaysia is a developed country. Coronary heart disease is effect by a substance that accumulated inside the artery, this substance also call as atheromatous. Thus, it can cause thickening on the artery wall or narrowing the artery (HU, M. ,2016). There are numerous factors that can cause heart disease, therefore in our research we propose to study on Fuzzy Expert method that can be used to diagnosis heart disease based on several factors such
In nosocomial outbreaks, the average mortality has been reported to be about 15–20% of hospitalized cases (Guerin, 1992; Roig & Rello, 2003) and up to 40% case-fatality rate was recorded amongst nosocomial infections of legionellosis (O’Mahony et al., 1990; CDC,1997). Cases of legionellosis have been recorded in many countries in the world. The proportion of hospital-acquired pneumonia due to Legionella has been reported as ranging from 0 to 47% (Hutchinson, 1990). In the United States, between 8,000-18,000 cases of Legionnaires’ disease occur annually and 25% of cases are hospital acquired (Marston et al., 1994; Kool et al., 1999). Infection with Legionella spp.