This is manifested by the statuettes taken during the Paleolithic period of plump women. There are different social factors related to obesity for example discrimination and low self-esteem. It is an important measure in determining the rate of exposure to serious health issues such as heart attack and obesity. The higher the body mass in comparison with the height, the higher the BMI. Individuals with a BMI less than 18.5kg/m2 are considered underweight.
Obesity is regarded as a health problem since it is associated with numerous co-morbidities, including type-2 diabetes, stroke, heart disease and some cancers (Department of Health, 2004). In recent years, statistics have suggested the existence of a global obesity ‘epidemic’ (WHO, 2000), posing a significant challenge to healthcare systems and governments over how to ‘cure’ and ‘manage’ the condition. Consequently, the trend toward increasing prevalence of obesity in older adults will lead to an increase in unhealthy life years and health-care costs (De Caria et al., 2012). This concept of the pathogenesis of obesity as a disease allows an easy division of disadvantage of obesity into those produced by the mass of fat and those produced by the metabolic effects of fat cells. In the former category are the social disabilities resulting from the stigma associated with obesity, sleep apnea that results in part from increased parapharyngeal fat deposits, and osteoarthritis resulting from the wear and tear on joints from carrying an increased mass of fat.
A BMI 23 be used for overweight and> 25 for obesity as opposed to usual limits of more than 25 and greater than 30 used internationally for overweight and obesity respectively. (1) Values between 18.5 and 23 are considered normal. Research shows varying trends in weight status in different parts of the world.
The prevalence of known diabetes in affluent areas aged 55-64 was 4.5%. Diabetes was more common in females than in males. Including the complications hypertension, ischemic heart diseases were also apparent. Obesity was marked as the major contributory factor. (K. Hameed et, al.1995) A survey on diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance and its relationship with age and obesity in rural town of Sindh province, Pakistan on 976 adults (of which 387men and 580 women, aged 25 years and above were included) were programmed.
The balance between in and calories out differs for each person. The factors that might affect the weight include, genetic makeup, overeating, eating high energy foods and not being physically active. Obesity is a metabolic disorder, which may increase the risk of various non-communicable serious conditions such as, diabetes, heart disease and cancer. It is a growing public health crisis that is global in scope. It is an exploding issue in Europe as well as in the United States.
Abstract The health risks (comorbidities) associated with obesity, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure and stroke has also increased. It is imperative that we regularly assess levels of overweight and obesity to inform health policies and intervention strategies. The use of valid and reliable assessment tools for overweight and obesity at community level is therefore of great importance. There are numerous methods available to assess body composition. However, there is no single universally recommended method for body composition assessment.
Fast Foods Effects on Obesity In America today, there is a growing problem with obesity. Obesity affects thousands of people in the United States and there is a growing concern with the amount of children that are obese. The number of obese children has tripled since 1970. Today, 1 in 5 children are overweight. With the high number of fast food chains around, it is almost impossible to avoid.
According to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 32.2% of American children and adolescents from 2 to 19 years of age were overweight, and 17.3% were obese in 2011 and 2012. The author further identifies main causes of obesity, including caloric imbalance, endocrine disorders, genetic syndromes, drugs, increased television viewing, decline of family meals, increased beverage and snacks consumption, etc. The major adverse health effects caused by obesity are cardiovascular disease, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, liver disease, asthma, sleep apnea, and others. The author explains that engagement in physical activity, consumption of healthy food, and limit of sweetened drinks and energy-dense food may prevent obesity. Faguy concludes that parental control, weight-loss surgery, weight-reducing diets, and other strategies may treat this severe health issue in children and
There are many components that play into childhood obesity, some being more crucial than others. A combined diet and physical activity intervention conducted in the community with a school component is more effective at preventing obesity or overweight. Moreover, if parents enforce a healthier lifestyle at home, many obesity problems could be avoided. What children learn at home about eating healthy, exercising and making the right nutritional choices will eventually spill over into other aspects of their life. This will have the biggest influence on the choices kids make when selecting foods to consume at school and fast-food restaurants and choosing to be active.
Schools and students have found loopholes in the USDA’s plan to regulate the nutritional value of school lunches. While schools have to follow the USDA guidelines for their official daily served lunch and breakfast options, alternate food options such as vending machines and ‘a la carte’ lines are causing trouble. These alternate lunch options are referred to as “competitive foods” (“Junk Food in Schools”). These competitive foods are the issue and need to be altered in school cafeterias across the nation. They offer a replacement to the regular school lunches, and some kids find themselves skipping out on the school provided lunch options altogether (“Junk Food in Schools”).