Theories help health educators organize data, facts information, etc. and plan and evaluate programs. Theories help come up with reasons why people are not living a healthy lifestyle, identify information required before developing an intervention, gives insight how to deliver the intervention , and identifies the measurements that are needed to evaluate the impact from the intervention. 2. The Health Belief Model (HBM) was developed by psychologists to help explain why people would or would not use health services.
Emerging Risk Factors, C., N. Sarwar, P. Gao, S. R. Seshasai, R. Gobin, S. Kaptoge, E. Di Angelantonio, E. Ingelsson, D. A. Lawlor, E. Selvin, M. Stampfer, C. D. Stehouwer, S. Lewington, L. Pennells, A. Thompson, N. Sattar, I. R. White, K. K. Ray & J. Danesh (2010) Diabetes mellitus, fasting blood glucose concentration, and risk of vascular disease: a collaborative meta-analysis of 102 prospective studies. Lancet, 375, 2215-22. Hu,
The individual lifestyles are the decisions, and habitat that usually result in health, illness, or even death. Some examples are cigarette smoking, diets, and physical activities (Evans & Stoddart, 1990). The environment is the elements or events that relate to health which are external to the body. In environmental determinants of health, the individual may have little or no control, which comprise of physical and social dimensions example are individual social class, being born in to a high class family, very rich or well to individuals ((Evans & Stoddart, 1990). Lastly is the organization of health care services variable consists of the quality, quantity, availability of resources, and personal relationships in the delivery of health care.
Society plays a significant role in shaping an individual’s character. Human beings have learned to communicate and understand through the context of their languages, traditions, behaviors, beliefs, and values. Their cultural experiences and values have shaped the way they see themselves and what they come to cherish. When individuals are part of a cultural group, they learn the ways of that culture, enabling them to feel like as though they belong to the community. This concept is illustrated in works by authors such as Arthur Miller, Anne Bradstreet, and Mark Twain.
The theory I choose that has application to my health promotion concept is the life course theory. The alternative approach to life course theory is a model that hypothesizes that adult chronic disease reflects the cumulative lifetime exposure to damaging physical and social environments (Nickitas, Middaugh, & Aries, 2010, p. 28). It was mentioned that factors like one’s socioeconomic status, like being born into poverty, could lead to poor education and limited access to health care services. This theory has a significant correlation and application to the health promotion concept I have chosen – the prevention, treatment, and care of diabetes. Diabetes is the 7th leading underlying cause of death in 2011("Healthy People 2020," 2014).
Culture, the life force of an organisation is where the real values, practices, beliefs, behavioural norms and customs exist. Edgar Schein, a scholar on organisational culture believes that the organisational culture are shared assumptions and beliefs of a group or organisation about the world and the group’s place in it, the human nature and human relationships. The nature and content of an organisation has a strong impact on its organisational culture. Leaders play an important role in shaping the culture of an organisation through their visions and values, role modelling and attention, and reaction to crises - the programs, systems, structures, and cultural forms that they implement. Enron Corporation “I don’t want to be rich.
smoking, alcohol abuse An individual’s heredity is determined by their chromosomal make-up, (the genes that were passed down from their biological parents). Heredity can be a risk factor for young Australians because there are certain diseases that are known to be inherited. They include asthma, type-1 diabetes, some cancers and heart disease, these can impact on the life expectancy & overall health (physical, mental, social) of young people. Sociocultural factors include family, media, peers, religion and culture. These factors can have a significant impact on the health status of young Australians.
Organizational values Values are an essenital part of our life, they encompass the abstract of what is right, worthwhile or desirable (Omery, 1989). Values are learned, modified and expanded through education (Eddy, Elfrink, Weis & Schank, 1994) but are also the products of culture or social norms (Meglino & Ravlin, 1998). They are shaped by the individual 's socialization throughout their life cycle and may change with age, experiences and culture (Parkes et al., 2001; McNeese-Smith & Crook, 2003). Due to their broad character they act as the basis upon which individuals make priorities and make choices in their personal and professional lives (Lee, 1976). A nurse 's individual value set shapes and guide her actions, attitudes and performance
It has been theorized to be one of the major factors that influences the formation of an individual’s idea about themselves. In recent literature the term ‘Cultural Identity’ has been mentioned, which refers to the aspect of an individual’s definition of self that derives directly from his or her link with one of more cultural groups. Cultural Identity comprises of the “shared traits, values, norms, experiences and history that are associated with one’s group and are internalized by the individual to make up an essential component of his or her identity” (Ashmore, 2004 as cited in Usborne & Sablonniere,2014). The importance of cultural identity can be understood in terms of the fact that it is now seen as an essential part of the overall identity development of a person and has been shown to affect the levels of psychological well-being in
We used PHM (the public health model) as a guide to solve and reduce these issues. The PHM is a broad-based biopsychosocial model emphasizing prevention from primary to tertiary prevention. Primary prevention are applied when an individuals are at risk of involving in misbehaviour activity before the behavior has occured. Secondary prevention refers to programs that attempt to rehabilitate youth who have shown early indications of problem behavior. Tertiary prevention refers to “treatment approaches for the chronic, serious offenders for whom secondary treatment strategies are deemed inappropriate.