During this phase the plan is “action-oriented, time-specific, and multidisciplinary in nature”(CMBOK). During the implementing phase also known as care coordination, the case manager secures, organizes, and modifies the health and human services and resources that are essential to meeting the patient’s interest and needs. The following-up phase is focused on evaluating the success of the case management plan and the effect on the patients’ health condition and outcomes. Depending on the client’s health condition the transitioning phase is focused on moving the patient across the health and human services continuum. During this phase the case manager makes sure the patient and the patient’s support system is ready to be discharged to go home or to be transferred to another healthcare facility.
The Health Belief Model (HBM) is one of the first and broadly used theory of health behavior. (3)see Abraham and Sheeran, 2005, for a recent review).It was developed to understand peoples’ beliefs about whether they are at risk for a certain disease or health problem, and their perceptions to seek prevention mechanisms or early detection and treatment (50,20,36,93).The HBM states that health behavior is constructed by two cognitions: perceptions of illness threat and evaluation of behaviors to counteract this threat. Threat perceptions are based on perceived susceptibility of the individual to the illness and the perceived severity of the consequences of the illness for the individual. Similarly, evaluation of possible responses involves consideration
Physical limitation related to environment, growth and development variation, cultural implications, effect of medication. Example when patient inadequate medication or absence of medication and absence support from family member will impact the assessment. Decision on treatment will delay and contribute limitation time and resource. Patient discomfort like anxiety, fear and nervous can predispose impact factor nursing health assessment. Assessment tools Lately assessment tool are used widely by all healthcare practitioners to help in their assessment role.
Predisposing factor: “any characteristics of a person or population that motivates behavior prior to the occurrence of the behavior”; enabling factor: “any characteristics of the environment that facilitates action and any skill or resource required to attain a specific behavior.” Reinforcing factor: “any reward or punishment following or anticipated as a consequence of a behavior, serving to strengthen the motivation for or against the behavior.” The Nine Phases of the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model Phase 5: Administrative assessment: “an analysis of the policies, resources, and circumstances prevailing in an organization to facilitate or hinder the development of the health promotion program.” Phase 6: Implementation: “the act of converting program objectives into actions through policy changes, regulation, and organization.” Phase 7: Process evaluation: “the assessment of policies, materials, personnel, performance, quality of practice or services, and other inputs and implementation experiences.” Phase 8: Impact evaluation: “the assessment of program effects on intermediate objectives including changes in predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors, as well as behavioral and environmental changes.” Phase 9: Outcome evaluation: an “assessment of the effects of a program on its ultimate objectives, including
3. Roles and responsibilities Alternative way to think about quality in health systems is to distinguish among roles, responsibilities in the various parts of a system. We can look at this from three perspectives: (a) Policy and Strategy Maker (Decision Maker) - The main worries at these levels will be to keep the performance of the entire system under evaluation, and to develop policies for improving quality outcomes. (b) Health Service provider - Their main concern will be to guarantee that the services they provide are of the highest possible standard and meet the desires of individual service users. (c) Service Users - Enhanced quality outcomes cannot be just delivered by service providers alone.
Internationally healthcare policies show the complicated relationship of various actors, formed a process in the current scenario to address the healthcare issues. The three major constituents of health policy formation are context, process and actors. Healthcare policies shows the collaborated decision of different participants, it shows the framework of the interrelated planning decision to be implemented for the betterment of society. 1.2 Critically assess the influence of funding on policy formation. Funding is the main element of the healthcare policy formation.
CHAPTER THREE: LITERATURE REVIEW 3.1 Introduction The following section discusses various studies that have dealt with study of health management information system (HMIS) and factors affects’ information utilization. Health information system has an organized set of interrelating components that can be grouped under two entities: the information process, and the health information system management structure. Through the information process, raw data (inputs) are transformed into information in a usable form for management decision-making (outputs). The information process can be broken down into sub components: (i) data collection, (ii) data transmission, (iii) data processing, (iv) data analysis and (v) presentation of data and information
The relation between input, health investment (I t ), and the output, health improvement ( f ) , is directed by the health production function f (•). The health production function f (•) is assumed to obey law of diminishing marginal returns in health investment. For simplicity of this discussion the use the following simple functional form will be
This is the fourth major component of health care system. Government Support: There can be situations where there is a need of government interventions in the health care system. This can be due to various reasons like providing technology support, organizing health awareness programs for people, care management, etc. There many Determinants of health care which affect the market in a big way. Some of them are explained as a part of this project.
The importance of Epidemiology and how it relates to Nursing Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health related states or events including disease and the application of the study to the control of disease and other health problem. Various methods can be used to carry out epidemiological investigation; surveillance determinants. The important of epidemiology on the whole is to improve the health of population. This essay will focus on the importance of epidemiology and how it relates to nursing .There will be definition of health, disease and nursing. According the WHO health amendment 1948 health is defined as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not